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A Study of Image Authentication Scheme with Self-Recovery
|關鍵字:||自我復原之碎形浮水印;self-recovery fragile watermarking;影像驗證;碎形浮水印;image authentication;fragile watermarking||出版社:||資訊管理學系所||引用:||R.W. Hamming, "Error detecting and error correcting codes," Bell System Tech. J., vol. 2, no. 26, pp. 147-160, 1950. T. Liu and Z.D. Qiu, "The Survey of Digital Watermarking-based Image Authentication Techniques," ICSP''02 Prooceedings, pp. 1556-1559, 2002. V.M. Potdar, S. Han, E. Chang, "A Survey of Digital Image Watermarking Techniques," 3rd International Conference on Industrial Informatics, pp. 709-716, 2005. Abbas Cheddad, Joan Condell, Kevi nCurran, Paul McKevitt, "Digital image steganography: Survey and analysis of current methods," Signal Processing, vol. 90, pp. 727-752, 2010. F. Liu, C.K. Wu, "Robust visual cryptography-based watermarking scheme for multiple cover images and multiple owners," IET Information Security, no. 5, pp. 121–128, 2011. I.J. Cox, J. Kilian, T. Leighton, T. Shamoon, "Secure spread spectrum watermarking for multimedia," IEEE Trans. Image Process, no. 6, pp. 1673–1687, 1997. J. Zhao, E. Koch, "Embedding robust labels into images for copyright protection," Intellectual Property Rights New Technologies, Proceedings of KnowRight’95 Conference, pp. 242–251, 1995. M.D. Swanson, B. Zhu, A.H. Tewfik, "Robust data hiding for images," Proceedings of the IEEE Digital Signal Processing Workshop (DSP 96), pp. 37–40, 1996. S.J. Deng, F.X. Wang, Z.L. Pu, D.G. Zhang, "A robust triple digital watermarking algorithm based on image blocking," International Journal of Nonlinear Sciences and Numerical Simulation, no. 10, pp. 727–733, 2009. M.U. Celik, G. Sharma, E. Saber and A.M. Tekalp, "Hierarchical watermarking for secure image authentication with localization," IEEE Trans. Image Process, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 585-594. M.U. Celik, G.Sharma amd A.M. Tekalp, "Lossless watermarking for image authentication: a new framework and an implementation," IEEE Trans. Image Process, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 1042-1049. J.Fridrich, "Image watermarking for tamper detection," Proceeding of the IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, vol. 2, pp. 404-408. J.Fridrich, M. Goljan and A.C Baldoza, "New fragile authentication watermark for image," Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, pp. 10-13. C.S Lu and H.Y.M Liao, "Multipurpose watermarking for image authentication and protection," IEEE Trans. Image Process, vol. 10, pp. 435-439. C.W Yang and J.J Shen, "Recover the tampered image based on VQ indexing," Signal Processing, vol. 90, pp. 331-343, 2010. J.C. Chung and Y.C Hu, "Am adaptive image authentication scheme for vector quantization compressed image," J. Vis. Commmun. Image R., vol. 22, pp. 440-449, 2011. P.W Wong, "A public key watermark for image verification and authentication," in Proceedings of ICIP, October 1998. P.W Wong and N. Memon, "Secret and Public key Image Watermarking Schemes for Image Authentication and Ownership Verification," IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 10, no. 10, 2001. B.S. Sergio and K.N. Asoke, "Secure fragile watermarking method for image authentication with improved tampering localisation and self-recovery capabilities," Signal Processing, no. 91, pp. 728–739, 2011. C. S. Chang, K.N. Chen, C.F. L and L.J. Liu, "A secure fragile watermarking scheme based on chaos-and-hamming code," The Journal of Systems and Software, no. 84, pp. 1462-1470, 2011. H. He, F. Chen, H.M. Tai, T. Kalker and J. Zhang, "Performance Analysis of a Block-Neighborhood-Based Self-Recovery Fragile Watermarking Scheme," IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, vol. 1, no. 7, pp. 185-196, 2012. P. L. Lin, C. K. Hsieh, and P. W. Huang, "A hierarchical digital watermarking method for image tamper detection and recovery," Pattern Recognition, no. 38, pp. 2519–2529, 2005. T.-Y. Lee and S. D. Lin, "Dual watermark for image tamper detection and recovery," Pattern Recognition, no. 41, pp. 3497–3506, 2008. C. S. Chan, "An image authentication method by applying Hamming code on rearranged bits," Pattern Recognition Letters, no. 32, pp. 1679–1690, 2011. X. Tong, Y. Liu, M. Zhang and Y. Chen, "A novel chaos-based fragile watermarking for image tampering detection and self-recovery," Signal Processing: Image Communication, vol. 28, pp. 301-308, 2013. J.D. Chang, C.W. Huang and C.S. Tsai, "LOCALIZED SELF-EMBEDDING FRAGILE WATERMARKING FOR IMAGE TAMPER DETECTION AND RECOVERY," International Conference on Applied and Theoretrical Information Systems Research, 12 2012. C.C. Thien and J.C. Lin, "A simple high-hiding capacity method for hiding digit-bydigit," Pattern Recognition, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 2875-2881, 2003. G. Voyatzis, and I. Pitas, "Chaotic mixing of digital images and applications to watermarking,," Proceedings of European Conference on Multimedia Applications, vol. 2, pp. 687–695, 1996.||摘要:||
本研究論文提出一個應用於灰階影像之偵測與復原的自我復原的碎形浮水印技術。本研究使用2×2像素區塊切割原始灰階影像，對每個區塊使用(7,4)漢明碼(Hamming Code)  產生3位元之檢查位元，並將檢查位元與區塊像素中之5 MSB(s) (Most Significant Bit, MSB(s):最高重要位元)的區塊平均值組成8位元的偵測與復原資訊，嵌入至安全對應原始區塊的4個像素的2 LSB(s) (Least Significant Bit, LSB(s):最低重要位元)中，透過嵌入演算法，可以在有利於偵測效果與復原影像之品質的情況下，維持一定水準的已嵌入浮水印影像品質。在偵測步驟使用每個區塊之5 MSB(s)的區塊平均值與(7,4)漢明碼之檢查位元來偵測判別區塊是否遭受到惡意竄改，並建立一個相對應的權重值矩陣。使用偵測補強步驟提高偵測準確度，對此權重值矩陣作以下兩種比較: 一為區塊權重值與相對應之像素權重值之比較，二為像素之間的權重值之比較，以達成偵測補強之目的。復原步驟利用每個區塊之5 MSB(s)的區塊平均值與(7,4)漢明碼之檢查位元中權重值較高者來復原遭受攻擊之像素。由實驗結果顯示，本研究所提出之方法相較於先前發表之方法有較高的偵測準確度與復原影像品質。
The growth of Internet technology is rapid, because the properties of Internet technologies are more convenient and public. The application of digital media on Internet is also more common, such as digital, video, and voice, etc. A self-recovery fragile watermarking scheme for image authentication and recovery is proposed. Using the self-recovery fragile watermarking to verify whether the gray image was tampered or not by public channel or public release.
The proposed scheme using 2�2 block to divide the original gray image. For each block, generating 3-bits parity check bit by (7,4) hamming code  for each block. Then the parity check bit and 5 MSB(s) of average block as the detection and recovery information which have 8-bits. This information embedded into original block is safety corresponding which in 2 LSB(s) of 4 corresponding pixels. In detection phase using the 5 MSB(s) of average of block and 3-bits parity check bit by (7,4) hamming code to detect whether block was tampered or not, and create corresponding weight array. At last, using the 5 MSB(s) of average block or the 3-bits parity check bit recover the tampered pixel.
In the experiment result, the detection accuracy and the quality of recovery image. Our result both better than the others.
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