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標題: 基於區塊加密之非擴張視覺密碼與分享影像驗證研究
A Study of Non-Expanded VC Based on Block Encoding and Share Image Authentication
作者: 黃宜瑾
Huang, Yi-Jing
關鍵字: 視覺密碼;visual cryptography;非擴張;區塊加密;驗證;分享影像;non-expanded;block encoding;authentication;share images
出版社: 資訊管理學系所
引用: [1] M. Noar and A. Shamir, “Visual Cryptography,” Advance in Cryptology: Eurpocrypt’94, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer Verlag, Germany, Vol. 950, pp. 1–12, 1995. [2] O. Kafri and E. Keren, “Encryption of Pictures and Shapes by Random Cipher-Grids,” Optics Letters, Vol. 12, No. 6, pp. 377–379, 1987. [3] C.H. Lin, Visual Cryptography for Color Image with Image Size Invariable Shares, MS Thesis, National Central University, Taiwan, 2002. [4] R. Ito, H. Kuwakado, and H. Tanaka, “Image Size Invariant Visual Cryptography,” IEICE Transactions Fundamentals, Vol. E82-A, No.10, October, 1999. [5] Y. F. Chen, Y. K. Chan, C. C Huang, M. H. Tsai, and Y. P. Chu, “A Multiple-Level Visual Secret-Sharing Scheme without Image Size Expansion,” Information Sciences, Vol. 177, pp. 4696-4710, 2007. [6] R. W. Floyd and L. Steinberg, “An Adaptive Algorithm for Spatial Grayscale,” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 75–77, 1976. [7] C. Blundo and A. de Santis, “Visual Cryptography Schemes with Perfect Reconstruction of Black Pixels,” Computers and Graphics, Vol. 22, pp. 449-455, 1998. [8] C. C. Lin and W. H. Tsai, “Visual Cryptography for Gray-Level Images by Dithering Techniques,” Pattern Recognit. Lett., Vol. 24, No. 1–3, pp. 349-358, 2003. [9] D. Wang, L. Zhang, N. Ma, and X. Li, “Two Secret Sharing Schemes Based on Boolean Operations,” Pattern Recognition, Vol. 40, No. 10, pp. 2776–2785, 2007. [10] D. R. Stinson, “Decomposition Constructions for Secret-Sharing Schemes,” IEEE Transactions Information Theory, Vol. 40, No.1, pp. 118–125, 1994. [11] C. C. Thien and J. C. Lin, “Secret Image Sharing,” Computers & Graphics, Vol. 26, No. 5, pp. 765-770, 2002. [12] W.P. Fang and J.C. Lin, “Visual Cryptography with Extra Ability of Hiding Confidential Data,” Journal of Electronic Imaging , Vol. 15, No. 2, pp.0230201–023020 7, 2006. [13] C. C. Lin and W. H. Tsai, “Visual Cryptography for Gray-Level Images by Dithering Techniques,” Pattern Recognit. Lett., Vol. 24, No. 1–3, pp. 349–358, 2003. [14] Y.J. Huang, C.C. Lee, H.C. Wu, J. D. Chang, C.S. Tsai, and Y.T. Tsao, “Novel Non-expanded Visual Cryptography Scheme with Block Encoding” Journal of computers, Vol. 22, No.2, pp. 61-71, 2011. [15] T.H. Chen and K.H. Tsao, “Visual Secret Sharing by Random Grids Revisited,” Pattern Recognition, Vol. 42, No. 9, pp. 2203–2217, 2009. [16] Y.F. Chang and J.B. Feng, C.S. Tsai, Y.P. Chu, H.C. Syu, “ New Data Hiding Scheme Using Pixel Swapping for Halftone Images,” The Imaging Science Journal , Vol. 56, No. 5, pp. 279–290, 2008. [17] R.W. Floyd, L. Steinberg, “An Adaptive Algorithm for Spatial Grayscale,” Proceedings of the Society for Information Display 17(2) 75–77.
近二十年來,網路已成為方便傳遞資料的工具,因此,如何傳遞機密資訊和維護隱私已成為現今重要的議題。於傳遞機密影像上,Noar 和 Shamir提出了一套加解密方法,此方法名稱為「視覺密碼」,其主要作法是將一張機密影像分成兩張藉由黑點與白點組成的亂碼影像,此亂碼影像又稱作「分享影像」,當兩張分享影像疊合將還原出原始機密影像,雖然此方法甚為方便,但還原後影像與原始影像存在著差異,其原因在於像素擴張使還原影像相較於原始影像大,造成了資訊的扭曲,所以許多解決像素擴張問題之研究,為了提升還原品質,本研究提出針對灰階影像作不擴張之方法,此方法不僅解決擴張問題,也相較於其他研究還原出之影像更接近於原始影像,為了提升還原品質,本研究方法是以影像中每一區塊作加密動作而產生分享影像,根據實驗結果,本論文以Kafri與Lin之研究作比較,結果顯示較為清晰。

In recent twenty years, the internet is a convenient way of transmitting various types of data. Therefore, how to transmit secret information and maintain privacy is an important issue. Naor and Shamir proposed a simple computation method for images called visual cryptography (VC). VC splits an image into two noise-like images called “share images.” All images are composed of black and white pixels. The original image can be recovered by superimposing the two share images. VC is a convenient encryption and decryption method for images, but there is a difference between the original images and the recovered images. Many researchers found that the size of the recovered image is larger than that of the original image. That is called pixel expansion, causes information distortion. Previous studies have used various methods to solve the pixel expansion problem. To improve the quality of the reconstructed image, this study proposes that the scheme shares gray secret images not only by using a non-expansion method, but the reconstructed image is more similar to the original image. To obtain a recovered image that is more similar to the original image, this thesis proposes a block-encoding scheme. This scheme first divides the image into blocks. Each block generates an amount of combinations of share blocks. Finally, the size of the share images and recovered images is the same as the original ones and comparison of the results among the schemes by Kafri et al, Lin. The recovered image of the proposed scheme was clearer.
In addition, research on how to improve image quality is required, although the safe transmittance of secret information and detection prevention are also important issues. So this thesis proposed another scheme, which is combined the block-encoding method with the ability to hide confidential data to prevent the detection of information. First, this authentication scheme divides the secret images into four regions. Second, follow a certain sequence of regions when it generates region share. Finally, superimposing share images would reveal the recovered original image and reverse one of share images would show recovered extra confidential information. So this thesis examined how to best present the secret image and confidential information.
其他識別: U0005-2407201221281100
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