Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/24378
標題: 植基於預測法及可適性之運用相鄰像素及差值擴張於可逆式資訊隱藏技術研究
A Study of Adaptive Prediction-Based Reversible Information Hiding Using Adjacent Pixel and Difference Expansion
作者: 朱雅甜
Chu, Ya-Tien
關鍵字: 資訊隱藏;Information hiding;可逆式資訊隱藏;可適性資訊隱藏;影像偽裝術;差值擴張;預測差值;Reversible information hiding;Adaptive information hiding;Image steganography;Difference expansion (DE);Prediction error (PE)
出版社: 資訊管理學系所
引用: [1] A. Cheddad, J. Condell, K. Curran and P. M. Kevitt, “Digital image steganography: Survey and analysis of current methods Review Article,” Signal Processing, Vol. 90, No. 3, Mar. 2010, pp. 727-752. [2] A. M. Alattar, “Reversible watermark using the difference expansion of a generalized integer transform image processing,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 13, No. 8, Aug. 2004, pp. 1147–1156. [3] B. Yang, Z. M. Lu and S. H. Sun, “Reversible watermarking in the VQ-compressed domain,” In: Proceedings of the Fifth IASTED International Conference on Visualization, Imaging, and Image Processing, Benidorm, Spain, Sep. 2005, pp. 298–303. [4] C. C. Chang and C. Y. Lin, “Reversible steganography for VQ-compressed images using side matching and relocation,” IEEE Transactions Information Forensics Security, Vol. 1, No. 4, Dec. 2006, pp. 493–501. [5] C. C. Chang, G. M. Chen and M. H. Lin, “Information hiding based on search-order coding for VQ indices,” Pattern Recognition Letters, Vol. 25, No.11, Aug . 2004, pp. 1253–1261. [6] C. C. Chang, W. L. Tai and C. C. Lin, “A reversible data hiding scheme based on side match vector quantization, ”IEEE Transactions Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Vol. 16, No. 10, Oct. 2006, pp. 1301–1308. [7] C. C. Chang, Y. H. Huang, H. Y. Tsai and C. Qin, “Prediction-based reversible data hiding using the difference of neighboring pixels,” International Journal of Electronics and Communications, Vol. 66, No. 9, Sep. 2012, pp. 758–766. [8] C. C. Chen and C. C. Chang, “High capacity SMVQ-based hiding scheme using adaptive index,” Signal Processing, Vol. 90, No. 7, Jul. 2010, pp. 2141–2149. [9] C. F. Lee and H. L. Chen, “A novel data hiding scheme based on modulus function,” Journal of Systems and Software, Vol. 83, No. 5, May 2010, pp. 832–843. [10] C. F. Lee and H. L. Chen, “Adjustable prediction-based reversible data hiding,” Digital Signal Processing, Vol. 22, No. 6, Dec. 2012, pp. 941–953. [11] C. K. Chan and L. M. Cheng, “Hiding data in images by simple LSB substitution,” Pattern Recognition, Vol. 37, No. 3, Mar. 2004, pp. 469–474. [12] F. A. P. Petitcolas, R. J. Anderson and M. G. Kuhn, “Information hiding - a survey,” Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 87, No. 7, Jul. 1999, pp. 1062-1078. [13] F. Peng, X. Li and B. Yang, “Adaptive reversible data hiding scheme based on integer transform,” Signal Processing, Vol. 92, No. 1, Jan. 2012, pp. 54–62. [14] H. Wien and T. S. Chen, “A novel data embedding method using adaptive pixel pair matching, ”IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, Vol. 7, No. 1, Feb. 2012, pp. 176–184. [15] J. Mielikainen, “LSB matching revisited,” IEEE Signal Processing Letters, Vol. 13, No. 5, May 2006, pp. 285–287. [16] J. Tian, “Reversible data embedding using a difference expansion,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Vol. 13, No. 8, Aug. 2003, pp. 890–896. [17] K. S. Kim, M. J. Lee, H. Y. Lee and H. K. Lee, “Reversible data hiding exploiting spatial correlation between sub-sampled images,” Pattern Recognition, Vol. 42, No. 11, Nov. 2009, pp. 3083–3096. [18] P. Tsai, Y. C. Hub and H. L. Yeh, “Reversible image hiding scheme using predictive coding and histogram shifting,” Signal Processing, Vol. 89, No. 6, June 2009, pp. 1129–1143. [19] W. Hong and T. S. Chen, “A local variance-controlled reversible data hiding method using prediction and histogram-shifting,” The Journal of Systems and Software, Vol. 83, No. 12, Dec. 2011, pp. 2653-2663. [20] W. Hong and T. S. Chen, “Reversible data embedding for high quality images using interpolation and reference pixel distribution mechanism,” Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation, Vol. 22, No. 2, Feb. 2011, pp. 131-140. [21] W. Hong, T. S. Chen, Y. P. Chang and C. W. Shiud, “A high capacity reversible data hiding scheme using orthogonal projection and prediction error modification,” Signal Processing, Vol. 90, No. 11, Nov. 2011, pp. 2911-2922. [22] W. L. Tai, C. M. Yeh and C. C. Chang, “Reversible data hiding based on histogram modification of pixel differences,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Vol. 19, No. 6, June 2009, pp. 906–910. [23] X. T. Zeng, L. D. Ping and X. Z. Pan, “A lossless robust data hiding scheme,” Pattern Recognition, Vol. 43, No. 4, Apr. 2010, pp. 1656–1667. [24] X. Zhang and S. Wang, “Efficient steganographic embedding by exploiting modification direction,” IEEE Communications Letters, Vol. 10, No. 11, Nov. 2006, pp. 781–783. [25] Z. Ni, Y. Q. Shi, N. Ansari and W. Su, “Reversible data hiding,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Vol. 16, No. 3, Mar. 2006, pp. 354–361. [26] Z. Zhao, H. Luo, Z. M. Lu and J. S. Pan, “Reversible data hiding based on multilevel histogram modification and sequential recovery,” International Journal of Electronics and Communications, Vol. 65, No. 10, Jan. 2011, pp. 814-826.
摘要: 
由於資通科技及網際網路的快速發展,使得人們紛紛投入多媒體網路通訊之新商業模式中,然而擁有便利的通訊仍無法完全滿足現代人類的應用需求,加上有心人士竊取訊息的威脅,讓通訊安全所衍生的議題逐漸被重視,因此,如何確保秘密通訊過程中具備安全已成為重要的課題,資訊安全之技術也因而蓬勃發展。
本篇論文研究主題為探討資訊隱藏技術於數位影像之秘密傳輸,藉由相鄰像素具相似性之特性,針對影像空間關係進行像素預測,因為影像具隨機多樣性,例如:平滑影像、複雜影像、明亮影像及灰暗影像…等,故以分類後之像素值類型及修改後之預測差值應對其多樣之特性,以達到多媒體機密通訊安全之目的。
本篇論文提出一個運用相鄰像素及差值擴張之預測型可逆式資訊隱藏技術,首先將掩護影像分成隱藏區域及非隱藏區域兩部分,透過相鄰像素將隱藏區域中像素分門別類,並依像素類型以預測差值擴張的方式,分別藏入適合的機密資訊量,在藏入機密資訊前,過大的預測差值已被修改成適合的預測差值,因而改善先前方法於差值或預測差值擴張後造成偽裝影像品質下降的問題,由於本研究方法依據像素類型藏入不同的機密資訊量,即平滑像素藏入較少機密資訊量,而複雜像素藏入較多機密資訊量,實驗結果呈現本方法不僅克服先前方法不適用於複雜影像的問題外,亦提高機密資訊的藏量及偽裝影像的品質。

Because of the information communication technique and the Internet grow quickly, people communicate with each other by Internet nowadays. However convenient communication is not safe enough for us. There are many hackers want to steal information from our communications so information security is much more important than before. How to ensure the safety of our communications becomes a very important issue. That’s why we study about information security technique.
In this thesis, a study of prediction-based adaptive information hiding techniques is proposed. The proposed scheme utilizes adjacent pixels to predict spatial correlations, The classified pixels and modified prediction error (PE) can handle that diversity of digital images, such as smooth image, complex image, brighter image and darker image, and then achieves the purpose of confidential communication and information security.
This thesis presents a prediction-based adaptive reversible information hiding scheme using adjacent pixels and difference expansion. The proposed scheme identifies the types of the cover pixels by adjacent pixels and depends on the types to embed different bits of secret information by prediction error expansion. Due to the prediction errors are modified before the secret information embedded, the doubled prediction errors can be reduced than previous methods. Because the smooth pixels embed fewer bits of the secret information and the complex pixels embed more bits, the proposed scheme not only overcomes the non-applicability to complex images in previous methods, but also has higher hiding capacity and image quality than previous methods .
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/24378
其他識別: U0005-1707201313042300
Appears in Collections:資訊管理學系

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