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Study on Starch Characteristics and its Influence on Starch Digestibility in Pigs
|關鍵字:||Pig;豬;Digestibility;In vitro digestion rate;Starch granule;消化率;體外消化速率;澱粉顆粒||出版社:||動物科學系所||引用:||洪平。飼料原料要覽。1986。台灣養羊雜誌社。臺北市。 飼料化驗分析技術手冊。1987。臺灣省畜產試驗所。台南。 賴欣豐、江嘉純、邱文石、余碧。2004。豬胃動態模擬系統之應用：評估不同蛋白質濃度飼糧消化率之影響。中畜會誌33（增刊）：80。 謝伶珩。2003。不同物化處理的澱粉對抗解澱粉生成之影響。碩士論文。私立中國文化大學。 Åman, P. and C. W. Newman. 1986. Chemical composition of some different types of barley grown in Montana, U.S.A. J. Cereal Sci. 4: 133-141. Åman, P., K. Hesselman, and A. C. Tilly. 1985. The variation in chemical composition of Swedish barleys. J. Cereal Sci. 3: 73-77. Andersson, L., H. Fredriksson, M. Oscarsson Bergh, R. Andersson, and P. Åman. 1999. Characterisation os starch from inner and peripheral parts of normal and waxy barley kernels. J. Cereal Sci. 30: 165-171. Badenhuizen, N. P. 1937. The structure of starch grains. Protoplasma. 28: 293-326. Baldwin, P. M., C. D. Melia, and M. C. Davies. 1997. The surface chemistry of starch granules studied by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. J. 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Effects of β-glucanase supplementation of barley diets in growth performance of broilers. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 70: 353-36.||摘要:||
本研究之目的為以飼料原料澱粉顆粒結構、體外in vitro測定消化率及消化速率方面來了解動物對不同澱粉水解之模式。試驗分別以玉米、脫殼大麥、小麥及馬鈴薯四種飼料原料探討其澱粉結構，進而當作主要澱粉來源分別配製等蛋白質、等代謝能之試驗飼糧，經澱粉水解試驗（in vitro hydrolysis）、動態體外試驗（dynamic in vitro）及豬隻迴腸（in vivo）消化率等測定澱粉消化特性。以掃描式電子顯微鏡觀察澱粉顆粒結構，玉米澱粉顆粒呈多角體之球形，粒徑為2~10 μm，脫殼大麥及小麥澱粉顆粒呈圓餅形及球形，粒徑為2~30 μm，馬鈴薯顆粒最大，粒徑約5~100 μm，外觀為橢圓球形。經人工消化液處理後之澱粉顆粒電顯圖顯示，玉米澱粉比麥類澱粉顆粒容易被酵素水解而成多孔狀外觀；馬鈴薯澱粉則最不容易被酵素破壞。In vitro澱粉消化試驗結果顯示，玉米飼糧組in vitro澱粉水解率顯著較脫殼大麥及馬鈴薯飼糧組高（P <0.05）；以豬隻消化道動態模擬系統（dynamic system of the gastrointestinal tract of pigs）評估澱粉消化率之結果亦為玉米飼糧組澱粉消化率較其他三組高。在in vivo澱粉消化率方面，玉米飼糧組顯著較脫殼大麥及小麥飼糧組高（P <0.05）。In vitro澱粉水解率（Y）及in vivo（X）澱粉消化率之線性關係為Y=0.152X+82.567（R2=0.9924）；Dynamic in vitro澱粉消化率（X）及in vitro（Z）澱粉水解率之線性關係為Z=2.6879X－136.72（R2=0.9334）。消化動力學特性為應用消化動力學模式DCt=D × (1-e-k(d)×t)來評估。In vitro澱粉水解速率（kd）以玉米、脫殼大麥飼糧組較高，小麥飼糧組次之，馬鈴薯飼糧則最低。綜上所述，以in vitro澱粉水解率及動態模擬系統之澱粉消化率可大致預估豬隻迴腸末端澱粉消化率，但並非適用於每種飼糧。In vitro澱粉水解動力學特性可用以評估澱粉於豬隻消化道之消化速率與其在迴腸末端消化是否完全。另外，藉豬隻消化道動態模擬系統研究澱粉消化動態模式，受限於飼糧種類、特性，其效能有待評估。澱粉顆粒結構及被酵素作用之程度、in vitro消化率與豬隻迴末澱粉消化率呈相同趨勢，增加了以澱粉顆粒超顯微特性及in vitro澱粉消化率評估in vivo澱粉消化之可行性。
The purpose of this study was to realize the kinetics of starch digestion by the correlation among feedstuff starch granular structure, in vitro digestion rate, and digestibility of starch. The scanning electron micrographs（SEM）of starch granules showed corn starch granule is polyhedron, granule size was around 2-10μm. Dehulled barley and wheat were bimodal distribution in starch granule size, the large disk shape granules being between 10-30μm in size and the small spheroidal granules being between 2-10μm in size. Potato starch granules are large with a smooth round oval shape, its granules range in size from 5-100μm. The SEM of starch granule also showed the susceptibility to enzymatic degradation of corn starch granules was higher than dehulled barley or wheat and displayed perforated surfaces, but the potato starch was limited. Taking corn, dehulled barley, wheat and potato to study starch structure, and then were each incorporated into the experimental diets. The starch digestibility of four diets were determined in vitro hydrolysis、dynamic in vitro and in vivo with ileal cannulated pig. In vitro corn starch hydrolysis was significantly higher than both dehulled barley and potato starch hydrolysis（P <0.05）. Dynamic in vitro corn starch digestibility was higher than the other diets. Ileal starch digestibility of corn was significantly higher than dehulled barley and wheat digestibility（P <0.05）. The digestibility of starch measured in in vitro and in vivo showed the high correlation（R2=0.9924）. The relation between in vitro starch hydeolysis and dynamic in vitro starch digestibility was high（R2=0.9334）.The kinetic characteristics of starch was predicted with kinetic model：DCt=D × (1-e-k(d)×t). In vitro starch digestion rate of corn and dehulled barley were the highest, followed by wheat and potato. In conclusion, in vitro starch hydrolysis and dynamic in vitro starch digestibility could predict in vivo ileal satrch digestibility, but it wasn’t fit in with each diet. The kinetic characteristics of in vitro starch hydrolysis could evaluate in vivo starch digestion rate and extent in ileum of pigs. However, using dynamic system of the gastrointestinal tract of pigs to study starch digestion kinetic characteristics was limited with the diet types and properties, its efficiency was worthy to evaluated. The present study suggested that there was similar trend of characteristic in starch granule ultrastructure, in vitro and in vivo starch digestibility among different starch sources.
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