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Study to improve the efficiency of production and development of cloned mouse embryos
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體細胞核轉置（somatic cell nuclear transfer, SCNT）技術所產製之重組胚（reconstructed embryos），除了可用於研究早期胚中細胞核與細胞質間之交互作用，探討基因功能、細胞分化與胚胎遺傳等相關之基礎研究外，亦可應用於臨床醫療使用，惟複製效率至今仍無法有效提高。本研究之目的為探討如何改善SCNT鼠胚產製與發育之效率。性成熟（2-3月齡）之B6D2F1（C57BL/6×DBA/2）小鼠經超級排卵（superovulation）處理後，於注射hCG後13.5 h收集停留於第二次減數分裂中期（metaphase II, MII）之成熟卵母細胞進行後續試驗。試驗一，為瞭解重組鼠胚最佳激活時間點，將於hCG注射後13.5 h收集之小鼠成熟卵母細胞，隨機分成三組，分別於收集後1.5、5.5及9.5 h，即hCG注射後15、19及23 h以氯化鍶（SrCl2）孤雌激活（parthenogenetic activation）。結果發現，hCG注射後15 h組其孤雌激活胚之發育率顯著高於19 h與23 h組者（85-94% vs. 20-76%, P < 0.001）。試驗二，嘗試利用非洲爪蟾（Xenopus）成熟卵子萃取物改善複製效率。將爪蟾卵萃取物與小鼠卵丘細胞（cumulus cells）同時注射入去核（enucleated）之成熟小鼠卵母細胞後，激活此重組胚（Extract組）並置於KSOM培養液中進行體外培養。結果顯示，重組胚各細胞期之發育率皆以注射爪蟾卵萃取物者顯著高於只注射卵丘細胞之對照組者（38-54% vs. 18-33%, P < 0.001）。另外，對照組與Extract組之產製胚於激活過程中添加5 nM Trichostatin A（TSA）6 h，經體外培養96 h後，將發育至囊胚期之複製胚分別移置至6隻以及3隻代理孕母子宮，並於懷孕第19.5天犧牲，其中，發現對照組一隻代理孕母子宮內有九個重吸收之胚胎。試驗三，為瞭解BRG1是否為爪蟾卵萃取物中影響複製胚發育之再程式化因子，將Extract-（已移除BRG1之爪蟾卵萃取物）與Extract+（未處理之爪蟾卵萃取物）分別與供核細胞共注射到去核卵母細胞中，並包含一組為單獨注射供核細胞之處理組（NT）與孤雌激活組（Parthenotes），觀察複製鼠胚後續的發育情形。結果顯示，Extract-組之原核率與早期胚分裂率（2-4-細胞期）均顯著高於Extract+組與NT組（79% vs. 45-60%; 72% vs. 35-53%, P < 0.05），而Extract+組之原核率與2-細胞期發育率亦顯著高於NT組（60% vs. 45%; 53% vs. 42%, P < 0.05），而雖然Extract-組之桑椹胚與囊胚率分別稍高於Extract+組與NT組（38% vs. 23-26%; 26% vs. 19-21%），但無顯著差異。將各處理組發育至囊胚期之鼠胚，以細胞免疫化學染色法分別分析Oct4，Sox2，Nanog與Cdx2 之表現，可見Sox2與Nanog於三組間之表現均散亂，惟Oct4於Extract+與Extract-處理組之表現較集中於在ICM之位置，顯示非洲爪蟾卵萃取物中具有調控複製鼠胚Oct4正常表現之因子。由以上試驗結果得知，使用老化之受核卵母細胞產製重組胚時，將降低重組胚後續發育能力，而成熟爪蟾卵萃取物中確實含有可提高重組鼠胚原核率與發育之因子，但其促進效率可能會受卵子萃取物萃取批次影響，因此需進行進一步之試驗以探討其成份與功能。
In addition to the applications for basic researches, such as studies of nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions in the early embryos, genetics and epigenesis, the somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos could be used in the clinical therapy. However, these applications are impeded by the low efficiency of production and development of SNCT embryos. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find the method or treatment to improve the efficiency of mouse SCNT. In Experiment 1, in order to find the optimal age of recipient oocytes, sexual mature (2 to 3 mouths old) B6D2F1 (C57BL/6×DBA/2) mice were superovulated and the metaphase II (MII) oocytes were collected 13.5 h after hCG injction, and randomly allocated into 3 groups, in which these MII oocytes were parthenogenetically activated by strontium chloride (SrCl2) at 15, 19 and 23 h after hCG injection, respectively and cultured in vitro. The results showed that the development of the parthenotes in the group of hCG 15 h was statistically superior to those in the groups of hCG 19 and hCG 23 h (85-94% vs. 20-76%, P < 0.001). In Experiment 2, the effect of mature egg extracts from Xenopus on the improvement of mouse SCNT was evaluated. The Xenopus egg extracts and one mouse cumulus cell were co-injected into the enucleated mouse oocyte. After activation, the reconstructed embryos were cultured in KSOM. It was observed the constant statistically higher development rates during the in vitro culture period in the egg extract-injected group compared to those in the none egg extract-injected (NT) group (38-54% vs. 18-33% , P < 0.001). In addition to in vitro culture, the reconstructed embryos from egg extract-injected and NT groups were treated with 5 nM Trichostatin A (TSA) while activation and transferred to uteri of pseudopregnant mice at the blastocyst stage after 96 h culture. Nine absorbed conceptuses were found in one out of nine foster mothers. In Experiment 3, BRG1 (brahma-related gene 1) contained in Xenopus egg extracts was examined the competence for reprogramming. Immunoprecipitation was applied to remove BRG1 from egg extracts, and Extract- (BRG1-depleted Xenopus egg extracts) and Extract+ (untreated Xenopus egg extracts) were with cumulus cells co-injected into the enucleated mouse oocyte, respectively. The results showed that the significantly higher pronucleus and early development rates in the Extract- group were observed during the in vitro culture period, compared with those in Extract+ and NT groups (79% vs. 45-60%; 72% vs. 35-53%, P < 0.05). Also, the formations of pronuclei and 2-cell embryos were significantly higher in Extract+ group than those in NT group (60% vs. 45%; 53% vs. 42%, P < 0.05). There was no significant differences in the formations of morula and blastocysts among these three groups, although it was higher in Extract- group (38% vs. 23-26%; 26% vs. 19-21%). The blastocyst from all groups were immunocytochemical stained to detect the expressions of Oct4,Sox2,Nanog and Cdx2. The scattered expressions of Sox2 and Nanog were found in the blastocysts derived from all three groups, but confined expression of Oct4 in ICM was observed in the blastocysts derived from Extract+ and Extract- groups, indicating factors regulating the expression of Oct4 might be contained in Xenopus egg extracts. Based on the present study, it is suggested that the aged recipient oocyte would hinder the development of cloned embryos. The factors enhancing pronuclear formation and development of cloned mouse embryos may be contained in the mature Xenopus egg extracts, but the efficiency could be influenced by collection batch. A further investigation of extract components and function is required.
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