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Effects of Different Levels of Dietary Arginine:Lysine Ratio and Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation on Growth Performance in White Roman Geese
|關鍵字:||Arginine:lysine ratio;精胺酸與離胺酸比例;sodium bicarbonate;white roman geese;碳酸氫鈉;白羅曼鵝||出版社:||動物科學系所||引用:||白火城、黃森源、林仁壽。1996。家畜臨床血液生化學。立宇出版社，台南市。 邱作相。1997。生長鵝之血液成分變化。碩士論文。國立中興大學，台中市。 李美珠。1988。日糧中添加碳酸氫鈉對乳山羊泌乳及瘤胃性狀之影響。碩士論文。國立中興大學，台中市。 何敏夫。2001。血液學。合記圖書出版社，台北市。 林炳宏。1995。高溫環境下飼糧添加抗壞血酸對白肉雞免疫反應之影響。碩士論文。國立中興大學，台中市。 季培元。1984。家禽解剖生理學。國立編譯館，台北市。 洪平。1987。飼料原料要覽。作伙逗陣雜誌社，台南市。 姜樹興。2009。動物營養學原理。華香園出版社，台北市。 張文章。2007。醫護生物化學精義。藝軒圖書出版社，台北縣。 許振忠。2009。家禽學特論。國立中興大學，台中市。 黃錫文。1992。環境溫度對台灣土雞生產性能之影響。碩士論文。國立中興大學，台中市。 臺灣飼料成分手冊。1987。行政院農業委員會畜產試驗所，台南縣。 飼料化驗分析技術手冊(增修版)。2000。行政院農業委員會畜產試驗所，台南縣。 蔡侑男。1993。環境溫度對台灣土雞產蛋性狀、肝臟脂質蓄積與脂質合成相關酵素活性之影響。碩士論文。國立中興大學，台中市。 潘淑芬。2003。醫學生物化學。藝軒圖書出版社，台北縣。 劉福文。2001。環境溫度與飼糧中添加維生素E或抗壞血酸對台灣土雞脂質代謝之影響。碩士論文。國立中興大學，台中市。 Agricultural Research Council. 1975. The Nutrient Requirements of Farm Livestock, no. 1 Poultry. London: HM Stationery Office. Ahmad, T., T. Mushtaq, M. A. Khan, M. E. Babar, M. Yousaf, Z. U. Hasan, and Z. Kamran. 2008. 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Poult. Sci. 76:627-633.||摘要:||
台灣地處熱帶及亞熱帶地區，夏季高溫多濕，容易造成禽畜產生熱緊迫的問題，而導致採食量(FI)低落、增重(BWG)減緩、飼料轉換率(FCR)不佳及斃死率增加等現象，造成飼養業者經濟上的損失。近年來許多研究顯示，在高溫環境下，調整飼糧中精胺酸與離胺酸(Arg:Lys)之適當比例可改善肉雞FI、BWG及FCR，而碳酸氫鈉(NaHCO3)為一緩衝物質，可調節動物體內酸鹼平衡，以舒緩熱緊迫。本試驗旨在探討飼糧Arg:Lys比例及添加NaHCO3對白羅曼鵝生長性能之影響。試驗一及試驗二的試驗時間分別為2010年7月9日~8月6日及10月8日~11月5日，均使用9週齡白羅曼鵝168隻，公母各半，分為三種Arg:Lys比例之處理組(1.045、1.245及1.445)及有無添加NaHCO3之處理組(0%及0.5%)，飼糧及飲水採任食，試驗於鵝隻滿13週齡結束後，採集血液及器官以供分析。試驗一結果顯示，當環境溫度較高時，飼糧中添加0.5% NaHCO3，可改善鵝BWG(P<0.05)，而不同Arg:Lys比例對生長性狀無明顯之影響，但以Arg:Lys比例1.245時，有較佳的生長趨勢；隨著Arg:Lys比例提高，血清中葡萄糖濃度增加，而總脂質濃度降低，肝臟重量減少，但腹脂重量增加(P<0.05)；當飼糧Arg:Lys比例為1.045時，血清中氯離子濃度及總膽固醇濃度較高，而肝臟的總膽固醇濃度較低(P<0.05)；添加0.5% NaHCO3可顯著降低肝臟中總脂質濃度(P<0.05)。試驗二結果顯示，當環境溫度適當時，飼糧中添加0.5% NaHCO3，反而對鵝隻的生長有不良影響(P<0.05)，而不同Arg:Lys比例對生長性狀無明顯之影響，但以Arg:Lys比例為1.245時，有較佳的生長趨勢；當飼糧Arg:Lys比例為1.445時，血液GOT濃度增加，而血球容積比(PCV)及總膽固醇濃度顯著減少，肝臟和脾臟重量、肝臟中三酸甘油酯、總膽固醇及葡萄糖-6-磷酸去氫酶(G-6-PDH)濃度顯著降低(P<0.05)；當飼糧Arg:Lys比例為1.245時，血液pH值顯著減少(P<0.05)；在飼糧Arg:Lys比例為1.045時，脂肪酸合成酶(FAS)活性最高((P<0.05)；而隨著Arg:Lys比例提高，腹脂重量隨之減少，且血清中三酸甘油酯隨之降低(P<0.05)；添加0.5% NaHCO3顯著降低血清中總膽固醇濃度，且增加肝臟中三酸甘油酯濃度(P<0.05)。綜合以上所述，不同的飼糧Arg:Lys比例會影響鵝隻對於胺基酸的利用及代謝，血清和肝臟中各種脂質成分含量及肝臟中脂質合成相關酵素活性進一步影響鵝隻的肝臟和腹脂重量，此反應調整飼糧Arg:Lys比例會對鵝隻體內的脂質合成、利用及代謝造成影響，而且在不同的環境溫度下，所影響的結果也不同。就生長性狀而言，本試驗飼糧Arg:Lys比例以1.245為適當，而添加0.5% NaHCO3可以舒緩熱緊迫，進而改善夏季肥育期鵝隻的生長表現。
Taiwan is located in tropical and subtropical regions, and high ambient temperature and relative humidity under summer season. Animals have poor FI, BWG, FCR and high mortality that caused impact of economical benefit. In recent years, many studies indicated that regulated dietary Arg:Lys ratio, improved FI, BWG and FCR, during heat stress in broilers. NaHCO3 can be used as buffer substance that can regulate acid-base balance in animals and improve physiological traits under heat stress. Thus, this study was conducted to assess the effects of dietary Arg:Lys ratio and NaHCO3 supplementation on growth performance in White Roman geese. Two trials were conducted. Trial 1 and trial 2 were conducted during July 9 to August 6 and October 8 to November 5 of 2010, respectively. One hundred sixty-eight 9-week-old geese were allocated into six dietary treatments, three different dietary Arg:Lys ratios (1.045, 1.245 and 1.445% in feed), and two different levels of NaHCO3 supplementation (0 and 0.5% in feed) for each trial. Feed and water were provided ad libitum throughout the experimental period of 4 weeks. At the end of trails, two males and two females were selected in each replicate and sacrificed for blood and visceral organs collection. Results in trial 1, BWG was improved when the diet supplemented with 0.5% NaHCO3 under high ambient temperature (P<0.05), and that was not significantly difference by dietary Arg:Lys ratios, however, dietary Arg:Lys ratio at 1.245, performance had a better tendency; when dietary Arg:Lys ratio increased, liver weight increased and abdominal fat weight decreased, serum glucose increased and total lipid concentrations decreased significantly (P<0.05); dietary Arg:Lys ratio at 1.045 had higher serum Cl- and total cholesterol concentrations, and lower liver total cholesterol concentrations (P<0.05); the diet supplemented with 0.5% NaHCO3 decreased liver total lipid concentrations significantly (P<0.05). Results in trial 2, the diet supplemented with 0.5% NaHCO3 had poor performance (P<0.05) under moderate temperature, and that was not significantly difference by dietary Arg:Lys ratios, however, dietary Arg:Lys ratio at 1.245, performance had a better tendency; when dietary Arg:Lys ratio at 1.445, blood GOT increased, PCV, total cholesterol concentrations decreased, and liver and spleen weight, liver triglycerides, total cholesterol concentrations, G-6-PDH activities decreased significantly (P<0.05); when dietary Arg:Lys ratio at 1.245 had lower blood pH (P<0.05); when dietary Arg:Lys ratio at 1.045 had higher FAS activities (P<0.05); dietary Arg:Lys ratio increased, abdominal fat weight increased, and serum triglycerides decreased significantly (P<0.05); the diet supplemented with 0.5% NaHCO3 decreased serum total cholesterol concentrations and increased liver triglycerides concentrations significantly (P<0.05). In conclusion, geese were affected for the utilization and metabolism of amino acids by different dietary Arg:Lys ratios, and it affected further lipid-related measures: liver and abdominal fat weight, concentrations of various lipid fractions in serum and liver, and activities of hepatic lipogenic-related enzymes, so geese were affected indeed for the synthesis, utilization, and metabolism of various lipids in the body by adjusting dietary Arg:Lys ratio, and there were also different effects in different ambient temperatures. Dietary Arg:Lys ratio at 1.245 was moderate and the dietary supplementation of NaHCO3 at 0.5% level reduced heat stress and showed a positive effect on production performance during finishing period in geese.
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