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Study on Manufacturing and Properties of Dry Cured Duck Meat
在微生物菌相方面，土番鴨及北京鴨乾醃胸肉表層部位隨著熟成時間，其總生菌數皆顯著地增加（p<0.05），而深層部位則分別於熟成2及1週後有下降的趨勢。乾醃鴨胸肉之微球菌數則與總生菌數變化類似。乾醃鴨胸肉表層及深層部位之酵母菌及黴菌菌數皆隨著熟成之進行而有顯著增加（p<0.05），但表層部位則分別於熟成4及2週後下降，而深層部位則皆於8週後顯著下降（p<0.05）。另外，乾醃鴨胸肉表層部位之腸內菌數皆隨著熟成之進行呈現不穩定變化，而在深層部位則可發現土番鴨及北京鴨乾醃鴨胸肉分別於熟成8及12週後即無法測得腸內菌。乳酸菌方面，土番鴨及北京鴨乾醃鴨胸肉之表層部位隨著熟成期之進行顯著增加且分別於熟成8及16週時顯著下降（p<0.05），而深層部位土番鴨乾醃鴨胸肉於熟成8週後乳酸菌即無法測得，而北京鴨乾醃鴨胸肉之菌數則維持在3 log CFU/g左右。
The purpose of this study was to develop dry cured duck meat according to the procedure of dry cured ham and to investigate the changes of its chemical contents, microbial flora, free amino acid, fatty acid composition, volatile components, toxicity test and sensory properties to evaluate its suitability as raw material for dry cured product .
The results showed that pH value of the external part of mule and Peikin dry cured duck meat significantly increased(p<0.05) but that of the internal was not significantly change during ripening. Water activity and moisture of mule and Peikin dry cured duck meat significantly decreased (p<0.05)during ripening. The moisture of external part of mule dry cured duck meat was significantly higher than that of the internal, but no significantly difference was found between the two parts of Peikin dry cured duck meat The moisture of external part of mule and Peikin dry cured duck meat was significantly lower(p<0.05)than that of internal after ripening 2 and 8 weeks, respectively. The nitrosohematin content of mule and Peikin dry cured duck meat significantly increased during ripening (p<0.05). That of external part of mule and Peikin dry cured duck meat were maintained stable after 8 and 12 weeks during ripening, respectively. The salt content of the mule and Peikin dry cured duck meat significantly increased (p<0.05)with ripening time increasing. The external and internal part of all dry cured duck meats reached stable after 4 weeks during ripening. In the visual color, the mule and Peikin dry cured duck meat showed red color before 4 and 8 weeks during ripening and then they became dark red color at the end of ripening.
In the aspect of microbial flora, the total plate count of the external part of mule and Peikin duck meat was significantly increased during ripening(p<0.05), but that of internal part meat was decreased after 2 and 1 week during ripening, individually. The change of Micrococcaceae count of the products was the same as total plate count. With ripening time increasing, the mold/yeast number of external and internal part of dry cured duck meat was significantly increased (p<0.05)but that of the external and internal part of meat were decreased after 4 and 2 during ripening. The number of enterobacteria count of external part of meat was showed unstable change, and didn't be found in internal part of mule and Peikin meat after 8 and 12 weeks during ripening. The number of lactic acid bacteria count of external part of mule and Peikin duck meat was significantly increased with ripening time increasing, before 8 and 16 week then the numbers were significantly declined. After 8 week ripening, the number of internal part of mule dry cured meat was not detected. However, the number of Peikin dry cured meat was about 3 log CFU/g.
The free amino acid of mule and Peikin dry cured duck meat was significantly increased after 4 and 8 week during ripening(p<0.05)then declined at 16 week ripening. With ripening times increasing, the PUFA of the skin part from mule dry cured duck meat was decreased , myristic acid and palmitic acid was significantly increased(p<0.05)but the PUFA of muscle part was increased. The change of fatty acid for skin and muscle part of Peikin dry cured duck meat was similar to that of mule dry cured meat. In the aspect of free fatty acid , expect of short chain fatty acid, PUFA of skin part from dry cured mule duck meat was decreased, but SFA was increased during ripening. Contrastly, PUFA of muscle part was increased(p<0.05),but SFA was decreased. The change of free fatty acid of dry cured Peikin duck meat was similar to that of muscle of mule meat.
In the volatile component, regardless of fresh or dry cured duck meat, they had the highest aldehyde in all volatile components and these components were important sources for the flavor of dry cured products.
Toxicity in brine shrimp test of dry cured duck meat, the result showed there was no toxicity from mold on the surface of dry cured duck meat.
In the aspect of sensory properties, color, softness, mouth feeling and overall acceptance score of dry cured mule duck meat were above 4 but salty and flavor of the products were unacceptable. Otherwise, except of salty, the others sensory properties of dry cured Peikin duck meat were accepted by the panelists.
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