Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/25156
標題: 任食影響白肉種雞與不同台灣肉用土雞產蛋性能-肥胖相關代謝失調之探討
Vouluntary feeding affects reproductive efficacy in broiler breeder and different meat-type Taiwan native chicken hens- a study of obesity-associated dysregulations
作者: 潘昱恩
Pan, Yu-En
關鍵字: Obesity;肥胖;Lipotoxicity;Taiwan country chickens;broiler breeders;egg production;脂肪中毒;台灣土雞;白肉種雞;產蛋性能
出版社: 動物科學系所
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摘要: 
在現代的家禽產業中,白肉雞因快速生長選拔的結果產生了很多不預期缺陷,如食慾調節與體內能量平衡喪失,但也出現因過度攝食而肥胖之傾向以及繁殖性能衰退。近年來研究顯示,白肉種雞出現脂肪代謝失調與繁殖性能低落之情形,而此現象與肥胖動物易產生第二類型糖尿病有關。脂肪中毒(lipotoxicity)為當動物體內的脂肪堆積過多,過度肥胖造成的細胞發炎反應、脂肪之氧化、脂肪衍生物甚至是脂肪酸本身即會對細胞造成細胞毒性(cytotoxicity),其中促發炎細胞素諸如腫瘤壞死因子(TNF-α)、介白素-1β(IL-1β)與神經醯胺(ceramide)皆是引起細胞發炎與凋亡原因之一。現今台灣土雞的生長速率比以往快速,體脂比率隨之增加,而產蛋性能也比以往差,此現象與白肉種雞類似,其原因可能是本地土雞已雜有白肉雞血緣,同時亦有可能是快速生長選拔與繁殖性能的分歧於鳥類演化上有其根本普遍性。因此本試驗以白肉種雞做為肥胖動物模型,以市面上紅羽
土雞與黑羽土雞經任飼與限飼處理,比較其是否已出現如同白肉種雞因肥胖所引起體內生理反應的改變,並且以中興大學B 品系土雞(中興大學保種土雞)作為較純品系土雞之比較。白肉種雞給予任飼及種雞公司建議餵飼量作為限飼,3 種品系之土雞分別予以不同餵飼量(任飼、任飼組採食量85%與70%),分析4 種品系之雞種任飼或限飼方式下屠體形態、產蛋性能、及生理代謝之影響。結果顯示白肉種雞、紅羽及黑羽土雞以任飼方式飼養會使雞隻體重、絕對肝臟重、相對肝臟比率、絕對腹脂重及相對腹脂比率較高的情形,此顯示任飼紅羽及黑羽土雞已如同白肉種雞出現肥胖之現象。紅羽土雞與黑羽土雞以限飼管理雖然無法改善產蛋率,但在體重與產蛋率迴歸分析中,任飼紅羽土雞及黑羽土雞已出現顯著之負相關,任飼組之白肉種雞、紅羽及黑羽土雞皆有較高濾泡閉鎖以及卵巢異常比例,而B 品系土雞則無出現此現象,此代表任飼紅羽及黑羽土雞族群中已經出現因肥胖造成產蛋性能低落之傾向。在生理代謝方面,紅羽及黑羽土雞皆如同白肉種雞般,血液中非脂化脂肪酸、肝臟與VLDL 中三酸甘油脂含量與肝臟中促發炎因子IL-1β、ceramide 含量皆為任飼組最高;在肝臟中SMase 及SPT 這二種影響ceramide 合成之酵素mRNA 表現上,紅羽及黑羽土雞任飼組表現量也有較高之趨勢。此結果顯示紅羽及黑羽土雞已出現像白肉種雞之肥胖造成脂肪代謝異(lipodysfunction),
這些脂肪衍生物可能已影響生殖細胞正常生理。在白肉種雞F1 之顆粒細胞中ceramide 含量明顯為任飼組較限飼組高,紅羽及黑羽土雞則與白肉種雞相似,B 品系土雞反而不明顯,顯示紅羽及黑羽土雞因肥胖,使F1 濾泡顆粒細胞出現ceramide積聚現象,而顆粒細胞SMase 及SPT 基因表現結果也一致。綜合以上結果,現今台灣市面上的商用紅羽及黑羽土雞,已經出現如同白肉種雞肥胖相關代謝異常,
並影響繁殖性能,本研究同時彰顯出商用土雞品系間的歧異性,對較純土雞品系而言,其影響非常小,甚至有相反趨勢。

Lipid dysregulation leading to poor reproductive performances in broiler breeder hens has been suggested to etiologically similar to the lipotoxicity theory linking obesity to type-II diabetes in mammals. This theory states that when excessive fatty acids accumulate in non-adipose tissues, inflammatory responses, oxidative damage due to excessive β-oxidation, and bioactive lipid derivatives may cause cell dysfunction or apoptosis. In recent decades, the growth rate of current Taiwan country chickens has been greatly promoted in association with increased adiposity but poor reproductivity as similar as typically exemplified in broiler breeders. This collateral consequence may be attributed to genetic crossbreeding with broilers or is likely due to the intrinsic divergence of growth and reproductive efficacy in avian evolution. In the study, we achieved an obesity model by ad libitum vs. restricted feeding in 3 strains of Taiwan country chicken hens, commercial Red (RF) and black feather (BF) line, and NCHU B-line (BL) and examined the effect of body composition, reproductive functions and physiological responses in reference with broiler breeders. Results showed that body weight, absolute and relative liver and abdominal fat weight, incidence of sudden death were higher in overfed birds than their restricted counterparts. Although restricted feeding failed to improve egg production in country chickens, regression analyses suggested that body weight is negatively correlated with egg production in RF and BF under voluntary feeding but not in B-line. Overfed birds exhibited higher plasma glucose, VLDL lipid, and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels, and hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) and phospholipids (PL) content. Consistent alterations of metabolic and endocrine signals were also observed as evidenced by promoted circulating bioactive ceramide levels, and inflammatory interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and ceramide contents in the liver and ovary, the final processing destination of egg production, with which a higher incidence of abnormal ovarian morphology noted for hierarchical follicle atresia was observed in birds fed ad libitum. The promoted circulating and tissue ceramide levels in overfed birds were further manifested with upregulation of hepatic and ovarian granulosa cell sphingomyelinase (SMase) and serine palmitoyl transferase (SPT) gene expression. The endocrine and metabolic alterations leading to ovarian dysfunction by overfeeding apparently is more noticeable in a sequence with broiler, RF, BF, and BL line. Taken together, we concluded that current Taiwan country chickens, particularly, RF line have developed obesity and related dysregulations leading to poor reproductive efficacy similar to those in broiler breeders.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/25156
其他識別: U0005-0802201015195500
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