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標題: 過度餵飼引發白肉種雞與台灣土雞產蛋性能低落-免疫細胞異嗜球相關功能之探討
Overfeeding induces low reproductive efficacy in association with heterophil malfunctionality in broiler and Taiwan country chicken hens
作者: 劉祖誠
Liu, Zu-Chen
關鍵字: Obesity;肥胖;heterophil;ceramide;MMP;異嗜球;ceramide;MMP
出版社: 動物科學系所
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過去50年以來的選拔與改良,現今之白肉雞生長速率已有明顯之大幅改善。然而許多不良之後果如生殖效益低落與對疾病抵抗力衰退等結果亦隨之而來。目前已有研究指出肥胖為現今白肉種雞產蛋低落之原因。哺乳動物因肥胖造成脂肪中毒(lipotoxicity)解釋了部分第二類型糖尿病的病源發生(etiology)。而其中過量神經醯胺(ceramide)的堆積被認為是脂肪引發細胞中毒的發生主因之一。而此理論似乎可解釋現今白肉種雞產蛋低落。台灣土雞亦是台灣肉雞產業重要的一環,而現今土雞之生長效率亦不斷有所改進,因此在其他性狀方面是否會步上白肉雞之後塵為一重要課題。排卵乃是為一種局部的生理發炎反應(localized physiological inflammatory reaction),有賴於免疫細胞之協同作用,最終由protease諸如基質金屬蛋白酶(matrix metalloproteines; MMPs)使濾泡壁分解破裂完成排卵。因此本試驗選擇白肉種雞、商用紅羽品系土雞與中興大學B品系3種不同品系分別予以任飼或限飼方式飼養對體重,腹脂重與產蛋能力之影響。此外並以高性能液相層(high-performance liquid chromatography, HPLC)分析異嗜球內之ceramide堆積,同時分析異嗜球之呼吸爆發、interleuukin-1β (IL-1β)與MMP之分泌。並且分析雞濾泡壁之MMPs表現。結果顯示在白肉種雞以任飼方式飼養將造成顯著較高之體重、腹脂重、腹脂率與產蛋數(P<0.05)。而任飼之紅羽品系亦有顯著較高之體重(P<0.05)與較高趨勢之腹脂重(P<0.08)。紅羽土雞體重與產蛋數間具顯著之負相關(r=0.46, P<0.05於任飼;r=0.48, P<0.05於限飼)。而B品系任飼組與限飼組在體重、腹脂重、腹脂率與產蛋數間無顯著差異。B品系任飼組體重與產蛋數間具正相關趨勢(r=0.39, P=0.12),而在限飼組則無顯著相關(P<0.05)。在異嗜球神經醯胺含量,白肉雞與紅羽品系任飼組含量均顯著高於限飼組(P<0.05)。而B品系在任飼與限飼間無顯著差異。以phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)誘發異嗜球呼吸爆發,或以lipopolysaccharide (LPS)刺激釋放IL-1β與MMP,在白肉雞與紅羽品系,任飼組之反應強度顯著低於限飼組(P<0.05)。而在B品系,任飼組與限飼組間均無顯著差異。白肉種雞與紅羽品系任飼組濾泡壁MMP活性大約分子量50 kDa處顯著低於限飼組(P<0.05),約72 kDa處之則無顯著差異,而B品系任飼組與限飼組間均無顯著差異。此外濾泡壁表現與異嗜球所釋放之MMPs間分子量有明顯不同(72 and 55 kDa vs. >200 kDa)。上述實驗結果顯示,以任飼方式飼養,在白肉雞與紅羽品系將造成體脂過高與產蛋相關性能不彰與濾泡MMPs活性降低。並使得異嗜球ceramide堆積與免疫相關反應不良,在B品系則無影響。而濾泡壁所表現之MMPs似乎並非直接來自異嗜球。綜合以上結果,紅羽土雞可能因參雜白肉雞血緣或禽類選拔上之必然性,產蛋與異嗜球生理反應與白肉種雞類似,而B品系為血緣單純台灣土雞,任飼並不影響其相關功能。

Over 50 years of genetic selection, the growth rate and feed efficiency of modern broilers have been greatly improved. However, it is also accompanied with some undesirable consequences including poor immune response and reproductive performances. In mammals, lipotoxicity theory as a result of obesity explains a part of the etiology of type 2 diabetes, in which ceramide accumulation is well-accepted as a major cause to manifest lipid-related cytoxicity. This theory apparently can account for poor egg production of modern broiler breeders. Country chickens account for 50% of commercial chicken industry in Taiwan, and the growth rate of modern commercial Taiwan country chickens is continuously improved. In consequence, commercial Taiwan country chickens suffered poor immunity and reproductivity similar to those observed in broilers. Ovulation is regarded as a local inflammatory reaction, involving immune cell participation in the ovary, where some proteases such as matrix metalloproteines (MMPs) can degrade the follicle wall and cause follicle rupture to release the oocyte. In the present study, we examined the effect of ad libitum and restricted feeding on body weight, abdominal fat weight and egg production in three strains of chicken hen, broiler breeders, commercial Red feather line, and NCHU B-line. Besides, heterophil ceramide content was analyzed by high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Heterophil functions in relation to reproduction such as respiratory burst and inetrleukin-1β (IL-1β) and MMP secretion were also analyzed. Activity of MMPs of the preovulatory follicle was determind. Results showed that broiler breeders of ad libitum group exhibited significantly higher body weight, absolute and fractional abdominal fat weight, but lower egg production (P<0.05). In Red feather line, ad libitum group had significantly higher body weight and marginal significant fraction abdominal fat (P<0.08). Red feather line displayed a significant negative correlation between body weight and egg production(r=0.46, P<0.05 for ad libitum and r=0.48, P<0.05 for restricted). In NCHU B-line, no any significant difference in body weight, absolute and fractional abdominal fat weight or egg production was observed between ad libitum and restricted group. B-line had a significant positive correlation between body weight and egg production when fed ad libitum (r=0.39, P<0.12), but the correlation was absent in restricted group. Ad libitum group in broiler breeders and Red feather line exhibited higher heterophil ceramide content. In NCHU B-line, heterophil ceramide content was not significantly different between ad libitum and restricted group. Ad libitum feeding also suppressed heterophil functions including respiratory burst and IL-1β and MMP secretion in response to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in broiler breeders and Red feather line (P<0.05). Interestingly, the hetrophil responses were not significantly different between ad libitum and restricted feeding in NCHU B-line birds. Broiler breeders and Red feather line also showed a lower activity follicle wall MMPs in molecular weight around 55 kDa by ad libitum (P<0.05), but no difference in molecular weight around 72 kDa. Follicle wall MMP activities of 72 kDa and 55 kDa were not different between ad libitum and restricted feeding group in NCHU B-line. These results suggest that ad libitum feeding in broiler breeders and Red feather line resulted in over fatness and poor egg production in association with repressed follicle wall MMPs activity, and heterophil ceramide accumulation, and sluggish responses of heterophil functionality. Ad libitum feeding did not affect NCHU B-line in those responses. Taken together, in contrast to the responses of NCHU B-line, a pure country chicken line in Taiwan, Red feather line exhibited poor egg production, over fatness and suppressed follicle MMP activity and heterophil functions similar to broiler breeders when fed ad libitum, suggesting a possibility of genetic hybridity by broilers and/or a destined result of avian species by genetic selection for rapid growth.
其他識別: U0005-1008200913344700
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