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dc.contributor.advisorYang-Kwang Fanen_US
dc.contributor.authorCheng, Min-Chienen_US
dc.identifier.citation行政院農業委員會。2004年。農牧字第0930040984號令。 行政院衛生署。2004年。署授食字第0929210167號。 行政院衛生署。2004年。署授食字第0939316919號。 行政院衛生署。2004年。署授食字第0949400850號。 行政院衛生署。CNS 4090。食品中黃麴毒素檢驗法。 Abarca, M. L., F. Accensi, M. R. Bragulat and F. J. Cabanes. 2001. Current importance of ochratoxin A producing Aspergillus spp. J. Food Prot. 64: 903-906. Acuna, A., M. C. Lozano, M. C. D. Garcıa and G. J. Diaz. 2005. Prevalence of Fusarium species of the Liseola section on selected colombian animal feedstuffs and their ability to produce fumonisins. Mycopathologia 160: 63-66. Arora, R. G., H. Froler and H. Fellner-Feldegg. 1983. Inhibition of ochratoxin A teratogenesis by zearalenone and diethylstilboestrol. Food Chem. Toxicol. 21: 779-783. Atroshi, F., A. Rizzo, T. Westermack and T. Ali-Vehmas. 2002. Antioxidantnutrients and mycotoxins. Toxicol 180: 151-167. Bao, J. X., Q. J. Xiao, J. G. Li and k. S. Chang. 2006. Review on the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the mycotoxin citrinin. J. 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dc.description.abstract本調查為針對台灣豬、雞、水產飼料與飼料原料中所含之主要真菌菌屬與伏馬鐮孢毒素 (fumonisins, FBs包括FB1與FB2) 污染情形,以做為飼料品管參考依據。試驗共收集台灣86個飼料樣品,檢測其所含真菌數與伏馬鐮孢毒素含量。而水產飼料另外檢測黃麴毒素 (aflaoxins) 與赭麴毒素 (ochratoxin) 含量。調查結果顯示各種飼料中所含之總真菌菌落數、Fusarium spp. 、Aspergillus spp. 與Penicillium spp. 之各該菌落數平均值介於0.03 × 103 CFU/g至8.62 × 104 CFU/g,其中豬飼料樣品檢測出之真菌菌落數較高,而水產飼料者較低,且豬飼料中所含之總真菌菌落數、Fusarium spp.、Aspergillus spp.與Penicillium spp.之菌落數皆顯著高於水產飼料者。使用高效能液相層析儀 (high performance liquid chromatography) 搭配免疫親合管柱偵測法分析飼料中伏馬鐮孢毒素之含量。結果顯示受伏馬鐮孢毒素 污染之樣品數佔總樣品數比例為90.7%,含量範圍為未檢出至5.96 mg/kg (ppm),分別有90.7% 與62.8% 之樣品檢測出含FB1與FB2者,其含量分別皆低於3 mg/kg 與0.5 mg/kg 以下。飼料原料樣品之FBs含量最高,含量範圍為未檢出至 5.96 mg/kg,而水產飼料均未能檢出aflaoxins與ochratoxin含量。本調查發現台灣豬飼料所含之真菌數與伏馬鐮孢毒素含量高於水產飼料者 (P < 0.05),但皆未超過FDA所定之上限含量 (豬與魚:10 ppm。雞:50 ppm。),雖然如此,仍需定期監測飼料,以防其含量機會性地超出上限含量而致危害動物與人類之健康。zh_TW
dc.description.abstractA survey was carried out to determine the counts of fungal flora and fumonisins (FBs including FB1 and FB2) in feeds for swine, chicken, and aquaculture as well as feedstuffs from 86 samples collected in Taiwan. In addition, the levels of aflaoxins and ochratoxin in aquaculture feeds were investigated. Results of this study showed that the means of colony forming units (CFU) of total fungi, Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., and Penicillium spp. were between 0.03 103 CFU/g and 8.62 104 CFU/g. Among them, the higher colony forming units of fungi were found in swine feeds, and lower in aquaculture feeds. Furthermore, the counts of total fungi, Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., and Penicillium spp. in swine feeds were significantly higher than those in aquaculture ones. The levels of FBs in the feeds were determined by using high performance liquid chromatographer (HPLC) along with immunoaffinity column. The ratio of samples contaminated with FBs to total samples collected was 90.7% with the contents varying between not detectable (ND) to 5.96 mg/kg (ppm). There were 90.7% and 62.8% samples detected with contents of FB1 and FB2 less than 3 and 0.5 mg/kg, respectively. High levels of FBs mostly occurred in feedstuffs and the contents extended from not detectable (ND) to 5.96 mg/kg. Aflaoxins and ochratoxin were not detectable in the aquaculture feeds. The counts of fungi and the contents of FBs in swine feeds are greater than there in aquaculture feeds in Taiwan and both of them are less than the upper limits 10 ppm set by FDA for swine and fish and 50 ppm for chicken. Nevertheless, the levels of mycotoxins should be regularly monitored to prevent their levels from opportunistically exceeding the upper limits in feeds which may jeopardize the health of animal and human.en_US
dc.description.tableofcontents壹、前言 1 貳、文獻探討 2 一、飼料中常見黴菌及其所產生之黴菌毒素 2 二、黴菌之生長與其產毒條件 2 三、黴菌毒素之危害 5 (一)黃麴毒素 (Aflatoxins, AFs) 6 (二)伏馬鐮孢毒素 (Fumonisins, FBs) 6 (三)赭麴毒素 (Ochratoxin, OTA) 11 四、黴菌毒素含量之分析方法 13 五、黴菌菌數之計數方法 15 六、食品與飼料相關法規之黴菌毒素含量上限 16 參、材料與方法 24 一、調查之設計 24 二、樣品之收集及保存 24 三、測定項目及方法 24 (一)黴菌之計數 24 1、試劑與試藥 24 2、儀器設備與裝置 24 3、黴菌屬及其菌數測定 27 (二)黴菌毒素含量之分析 28 1、分析材料及試劑 28 2、儀器設備與裝置 29 3、伏馬鐮孢毒素 (Fumonisins) 含量之分析方法 29 4、黃麴毒素 (Aflatoxins) 含量之分析方法 32 5、赭麴毒素 (Ochratoxin) 含量之分析方法 32 6、黴菌毒素分析之品質管制與確認 33 (三)銅與鋅濃度之分析 40 四、統計分析 40 肆、結果與討論 43 一、台灣畜產與水產飼料中所含之黴菌數 43 二、台灣畜產與水產飼料之伏馬鐮孢毒素含量 48 三、台灣水產飼料黃麴毒素與赭麴毒素含量 57 四、飼料中銅、鋅含量與黴菌數及黴菌毒素含量間之相關 57 伍、結論 60 陸、建議 61 柒、參考文獻 62zh_TW
dc.subjectAnimal feedsen_US
dc.subjectAquaculture feedsen_US
dc.titleSurvey of Fungal Countsand Contents of Mycotoxins in Animal and Aquaculture Feeds in Taiwanen_US
dc.typeThesis and Dissertationzh_TW
item.openairetypeThesis and Dissertation-
item.fulltextno fulltext-
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