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Effects of Different Photoperiods and Feeding Models on Force Molting and Laying Performance of White Roman Geese
|關鍵字:||geese;鵝;fasted feeding;restricted feeding;laying period;force molting;斷飼;限飼;產蛋期;強迫換羽||出版社:||畜產學系||摘要:||
本試驗旨在探討光照長度與飼養方式對種鵝換羽及產蛋性狀之影響。使用初產之白羅曼鵝共132隻(48公：84母)，分置於2個光照長度處理組與3個餵飼方式處理組，共6個處理組（2×3）每處理組11隻（7母：4公），二重複。2個光照長度處理組分別為：6L：18D與20L：4D；3個餵飼方式處理組，分別為（1）限飼處理組：每日給與維持飼糧50g/隻，直至體失重達33﹪（限-33﹪處理組）；（2）斷飼A組：斷飼10日(第2、 3日同時斷水)後，每日給與維持飼糧50g/隻，直至體失重達23%（斷-23﹪處理組）及（3）斷飼B組：斷飼20日（第2、 3日同時斷水）後，每日給與維持飼糧50g/隻，直至體失重達33%（斷-33﹪處理組）。當鵝隻達目標體失重後逐漸恢復給飼，給予維持飼糧，並於鵝隻翅膀羽毛於薦部交叉，且頸部羽毛開始脫落後，給予產蛋飼料。實驗期間，鵝隻置於水簾式鵝舍中，除斷水日外，飲水採任食。試驗結果顯示，長光照限-33﹪處理組，在恢復給飼後10日，主翼羽換羽支數達到9.5支/隻，顯著高於其他各處理組（P <0.05）。於恢復給飼後35日，則以長光照斷-23﹪處理組之主翼羽更換達19.86支/隻最佳，其他長光照處理組換羽數均亦較短光照處理組為佳（P <0.05）。全期斃死率以短光照斷-33﹪處理組顯著高於其他各處理組（P <0.05）。鵝隻於換羽後全年產蛋數，在長、短光照處理組間並無顯著差異（P >0.05），但是以短光照限-33﹪處理組之表現較佳，產蛋數達到91.5顆/隻。血液性狀方面，鵝隻經斷飼處理後，總膽固醇濃度升高；三酸甘油酯濃度於限飼與斷飼時降低，開始產蛋後則升高；鈉、鉀、氯三種主要電解質於試驗處理期間與產蛋期間變化不大；而體失重較大者，其PCV值有較低的趨勢；雌二醇、助孕素以及睪固酮的濃度，於限飼與斷飼時下降，而產蛋開始時升高；甲狀腺素在換羽過程中升高而在開始產蛋後下降。由以上本試驗之結果顯示，種鵝於水簾式鵝舍中進行強迫換羽，以長光照（20L:4D）搭配限飼處理（50g維持飼糧/隻）使體失重達到33﹪，則全年之產蛋數較佳。性成熟種母鵝如以短光照（9L:15D）處理，縱使給予限飼或斷飼處理，使其停止產蛋，則在恢復給飼後，並不會換羽而直接進入產蛋階段，而全年之產蛋數，亦以限飼處理組較佳。本試驗之結果，可提供作為種鵝實施產期調整時之參考應用。
The purpose of this experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different light lengths and feed models on the feather molting speed of primary feathers and laying performance of White Roman geese. One hundred and thirty-two （84♀:48♂）White Roman primiparous breeding geese were used and were divided into 6 treatments（2x3）including 2 lighting lengths（6L：18D and 20L：4D） and 3 feeding models. The 3 feeding models were ：（1）Restricted feeding treatment：geese fed with 50 g maintenance diet per bird per day until body weight loss at 33﹪（R-33﹪）；（2）Fasted treatment A：geese were fasted 10 days with 2nd and 3rd days no access to water, then fed with 50 g maintenance diet per bird per day until body weight loss at 23﹪（F-23﹪）；（3）Fasted treatment B：geese were fasted 20 days with 2nd and 3rd days no access to water, then fed with 50 g maintenance diet per bird per day until body weight loss at 33﹪（F-33﹪）. Each treatment had 11 geese （7♀:4♂）and made two replicates. When the body loss arriving target, gave the geese with 50 g maintenance diet per day first and increased gradually. After the primary renew and neck feather molting, gave the geese with laying diet. Except 2nd and 3rd days of fasted treatment, water was supplied ad. libutum and all geese housed in the water pad cooling house. The results indicated that the molting of primary feathers of geese in 20L：4D treatment was 9.5 feathers/bird and was significantly higher than the other groups（P<0.05）. However, geese receiving 20L：4D lighting treatment, the F-23﹪group molted 19.86 feathers/bird and was the best efficacy among treatments. The geese exposed under 20L：4D lighting treatments molted more feathers than those exposed under 6L：18D lighting treatments at 35 days after geese returned access to feed（P<0.05）. The total mortality of geese in F-33﹪group was higher than the other treatments. The egg production of geese with different lighting lengths were no significantly different（P >0.05）, but the restricted feeding treatments exposed under 6L：18D lighting treatments were 91.5 per goose and were better than the others. The concentration of total cholesterol increased when the geese with fasted treatment. The concentration of triglyceride decreased when the geese with restricted and fasted treatments, but they increased after laying. The concentration of Na+、K+ and Cl－ were not significant different during experiment and laying period among treatments. The concentration of estradiol、progesterone and testosterone decreased when the geese with restricted and fasted treatment, but they increased when the geese started to laying. The concentration of thyroxine increased during molting but reduced after laying. According the results of this experiment, the egg production of geese in whole year was best when those restricted feed under 20L：4D lighting treatment. Though geese restricted feed or fasted to cease the egg laying. The feather moulting was not found and egg laying was discovered when geese returned access to feed and restricted feeding group had best egg production in whole year.
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