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Effect of Various Levels of Monascus purpureus and usage of smoking on the Quality of Low-Nitrite Cured Ducks During Storage at 4℃
本試驗係分別添加Monascus purpureus CCRC No. 31499製成之紅糟3％、5％及10％於鴨賞醃料中，再分以煙燻與否(S-煙燻處理；R-未煙燻處理)處理，探討紅麴添加及煙燻處理對低硝鴨賞於4℃儲存期間其產品品質及風味物質之影響。於第0天測定製品之一般化學組成、含鹽量及剪力值。製品經真空包裝後儲藏在4℃，於第0、7、21、35及49天測試其pH值、2-硫巴比妥酸(TBA)、揮發性鹽基態氮(VBN)、總生菌數、厭氣菌數、色澤和亞硝根殘留量之變化，並於第28天及第49天進行感官品評。另外分析紅麴(Monascus purpureus CCRC No. 31494)及鴨賞醃料中有無添加10％紅麴和煙燻與否之風味化合物質。
結果顯示：低硝鴨賞經煙燻處理之組別(S1:3％、S2:5％、S3:10％)，其水分、粗蛋白及粗脂肪含量與對照組(C)間無顯著差異(p>0.05)，但C、S1、S2及S3組其水分及粗脂肪含量皆顯著低於未煙燻處理組(R1:3％、R2:5％、R3:10％) (p<0.05)；而添加紅麴及煙燻對鴨賞之灰份含量並無顯著差異(p>0.05)。對照組含鹽量為3.34％顯著高於其他處理組(2.26～2.28％) (p<0.05)。隨著儲藏天數增加，各組之微生物及VBN值皆顯著上升(p<0.05)；總生菌數及厭氣菌數隨著紅麴添加量之增加及煙燻處理有減少之趨勢但無顯著差異(p>0.05)；VBN值隨著紅麴添加量之增加而越高，且S1、S2及S3其VBN值於儲藏期間皆較R1、R2及R3為低。
The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of adding Monascus purpureus 3％, 5％and 10％ to curing agent and usage of smoking (S-smoking; R-without smoking) on the quality and flavor of low-nitrite cured ducks storage at 4℃ for 49 days.
The pH value, TBA value, VBN value, total plate count, anaerobic bacteria count, color and residual nitrite content of the products with vacuum package were to determine at the 0th, 7th, 21th, 35th and 49th day during cold storage. The sensory panels of all cured ducks were also performed at the 28th and 49th day in this experiment. On the other hand, the shear force, the content of salt and the chemical composition of cured ducks were to determine at the 0th day. Since Monascus and smoking could produce some flavor compounds, the volatile compounds of Monascus purpureus culture and cured ducks with 10% Monascus purpureus and usage of smoking were extracted and analyzed by GC.
The results showed that the control (C) and the low-nitrite cured ducks with Monascus purpureus and smoking (S1:3％, S2:5％, S3:10％) were not significantly different in moisture, crude protein and crude fat (p>0.05), but the moisture and crude fat of the C, S1, S2 and S3 were significantly lower than those of the treatments without smoking (R1:3％, R2:5％, R3:10％) (p<0.05). There was no significant difference was found in ash analysis in products with or without Monascus purpureus and smoking (p>0.05). The control had significantly higher content of salt than all treatments (3.34％ vs. 2.26～2.28％). Microorganisms and VBN value of all treatments increased significantly with storage time increasing (p<0.05). As increasing the addition of Monascus purpureus and usage of smoking, total plate count and anaerobic bacteria count were lower but not significantly (p>0.05). VBN value of cured ducks were higher as the Monascus purpureus addition increased or without smoking. The pH value of all treatments declined with storage time and the addition of Monascus purpureus increased, and pH value of the C, S1, S2 and S3 were higher than that of the R1, R2 and R3.
At 7th day during storage, TBA value of all treatments increased markedly, and that of the C, S1, S2 and S3 were higher than that of the R1, R2 and R3. Moreover, with addition of Monascus, the degrading rate of nitrite can be slowed down in this study, and TBA value increased with Monascus level. On the other hand, L value declined but a value increased during storage time. As increasing the addition of Monascus, a value increased significantly (p<0.05), but all treatment were not significantly different with L value. The shear force of the C, S1, S2 and S3 were higher than that of the R1, R2 and R3, and declined with Monascus level. The sensory panels of cured ducks with 5％ Monascus purpureus and smoking had better scores in overall acceptance at the 28th and 49th day.
In the aspect of volatile components, the main volatile components of cured ducks were alcohols, aldehydes, acids, esters, phenols and heterocyclic compounds. In addition to, the major volatile components such as alcohols, aldehydes, acids and esters were extracted from Monascus. Alcohols, aldehydes, acids and esters were increased as cured ducks with Monascus as well as smoking also can increase phenol compounds in cured ducks.
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