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|標題:||添加不同量之Monascus purpureus和 1% Monascus pilosus對低硝中式香腸於4℃儲存期間品質之影響
Effects of Various Levels of Monascus purpureus and 1% Monascus pilosus on the Quality of Low-Nitrite Chinese-style Sausages During Storage at 4℃
本試驗目的是探討低硝中式香腸中添加不同量之Monascus purpureus (CCRC No. 31499) 和1％ Monascus pilosus ( CCRC No. 31527 ) 以降低亞硝酸鈉之添加對其儲藏期間品質之影響。製品經真空包裝後儲藏在4℃，於0、7、14、28及56天測定其水活性、pH值、TBA、VBN、總生菌數、黴菌數、厭氣菌數、色澤和亞硝酸根殘留量之變化，並於0、28和56天進行官能品評。由於紅麴能產生獨特的風味物質及抑制膽固醇生成之物質，因此本試驗分析紅麴菌 ( Monascus purpureus CCRC No. 31499)製成之紅麴米及香腸中添加0.5%紅麴米之風味物質，並餵飼老鼠含Monascus pilosus之香腸，分析其降血漿中膽固醇之功效。
結果顯示：中式香腸中添加不同量之Monascus purpureus和1% Monascus pilosus並不影響其一般化學組成。水活性方面，各處理之間的水活性隨著儲存天數的增加無顯著的差異，介於0.919∼0.935之間。低硝香腸添加不同量紅麴之處理則可呈現其產品之pH值隨儲存天數之增加而降低的現象。另外，紅麴的添加可減緩亞硝酸根殘留量隨儲藏天數的增加而減少的速率。在微生物方面，添加不同量之Monascus purpureus和1% Monascus pilosus之組別 (K1、K2和K3)及只添加Monascus purpureus之組別 (R1、R2和R3)，其總生菌數、黴菌和厭氣菌菌數皆高於沒添加紅麴的組別 (A和C組)，菌數各介於7.07∼7.91 log CFU/g之間、6.87∼8.16 log CFU/g之間和7.09∼7.99 log CFU/g之間，且隨儲存天數的增加無顯著的差異。
中式香腸中添加不同量之Monascus purpureus和1% Monascus pilosus於冷藏儲存期間 (4℃) 其二硫巴比妥酸 (TBA) 值方面，儲存至第7天時，各處理組之TBA值均較對照組 (C組) 為高，且隨著紅麴的添加量之增加其TBA值亦較高。隨著儲藏天數的增加，添加0.5% Monascus purpureus和1% Monascus pilosus之組別 (K1)和 0.5% Monascus purpureus之組別 (R1)，其VBN值均與沒添加紅麴的A和C組較相似。中式香腸中添加Monascus，其a值顯著 (p<0.05) 的較沒有添加紅麴的A、C組為高，且尤以K1和R1組其a值和C組較接近。沒添加紅麴菌的組別A和C組，其L值皆較有添加Monascus之組別為高，因此沒添加紅麴菌的組別其紅色屬於亮紅色，而有添加紅麴菌的組別隨著添加量的增加使其紅色呈現暗紅色。中式香腸中添加不同量之Monascus purpureus和1% Monascus pilosus於冷藏儲存28天時 (4℃)，K1、R1、R2和R3組其總接受度皆在可接受程度以上，且以R2總接受度得分較高。
The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of different levels of Monascus purpureus (CCRC No. 31499) and 1% Monascus pilosus (CCRC No. 31527) on the quality of low-nitrite Chinese-style sausages during storage at 4℃ for 56 days.
The water activity, pH value, TBA value, VBN value, total plate count, mold count, anaerobic bacteria count, color and residual nitrite content of the products with vacuum package were to determine at the 0, 7th, 14th, 28th and 56th day during cold storage. The sensory panels of all sausages were also performed at the 0, 28th and 56th day in this experiment. Since Monascus could produce some flavor compounds and cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor, the volatile compounds of Monascus rice (Monascus purpureus CCRC No. 31499) and sausages with 0.5% Monascus purpureus were extracted and analyzed. On the other hand, total cholesterol of mouse serums were determined to evaluate the functional ability for reducing cholesterol by feeding sausages with Monascus pilosus.
The results showed that the chemical compositions of low-nitrite Chinese-style sausages were not affected by addition of different levels of Monascus purpureus and 1% Monascus pilosus. The water activity of all treatments was not significantly different with storage time and the were values from 0.919 to 0.935. A slower decline rate of pH for all treatment of low-nitrite Chinese-style sausages with Monascus can be found. Additionally, with addition of Monascus, the degrading rate of nitrite can be slowed down in this study. In the aspect of microorganism, the total plate count, mold count and anaerobic bacteria count of Chinese-style sausage with different levels of Monascus purpureus and 1% Monascus pilosus (K1, K2 and K3) or only with different levels of Monascus purpureus (R1, R2 and R3) were significantly higher than that of A and C, and the values were from 7.07 to 7.91 log CFU/g , 6.87 to 8.16 log CFU/g and 7.09 to 7.99 log CFU/g, individually, during cold storage (4℃).
TBA value of all treatments with different levels of Monascus purpureus and 1% Monascus pilosus were higher than that of the A and C at 7 day during storage, and TBA value increased with Monascus levels. The products with 0.5% Monascus and 1% Monascus pilosus (K1) and only 0.5% Monascus (R1) had the similar VBN values as the A and C. The a value of all sausages with Monascus were higher than that of A and C. Moreover, a value of K1 and R1 were closed to C. The L value of A and C were higher than that of all sausages with Monascus, therefore the color of sausages without Monascus were light red and darker red color were showed in sausages with Monascus. The overall acceptance of Chinese-style sausage with 0.5% Monascus purpureus and 1% Monascus pilosus(K1) and sausages with 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% Monascus purpureus (R1, R2 and R3)can be accepted when these products stored at 4℃ for 28 days. At the same time, the sausages with 1% Monascus purpureus (R2) had the best overall acceptance by the panelists.
In the aspect of volatile components, the main volatile components of Monascus rice were alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, carboxylic acid, heterocyclin compounds, esters and phenols. In addition to, the major volatile components such as esters, alcohols, phenols, carboxylic acid, ketones, alkenes and lactone were extracted from sausage with Monascus rice.
Furthermore, the Chinese-style sausages with Monascus pilosus could have the functionality for inhibiting of cholesterol biosynthesis in mouse plasma by feeding experiment in this study.
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