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標題: 應用青割玉米、盤固草與尼羅草青貯料於台灣地區泌乳牛飼糧之研究
Studies on the use of corn silage, pangolagrass silage, and nilegrass silage in dairy ration
作者: 郭俊巖
Kuo, Chun-Yen
關鍵字: Dairy cows;泌乳牛;Corn silage;Pangolagrass silage;Nilegrass silage;青割玉米青貯料;盤固草青貯料;尼羅草青貯料
出版社: 畜產學系
本試驗之目的在探討青割玉米青貯料、盤固草青貯料與尼羅草青貯料對泌乳牛生產性狀與瘤胃性狀之影響。試驗一進行泌乳牛飼養試驗,試驗選取18頭平均乳量28.3公斤/天,平均泌乳天數(DIM) 69天(初產牛11頭,平均泌乳天數71天,平均產乳量27公斤/天;經產牛7頭,平均泌乳天數65天,平均產乳量30公斤/天)之牛隻進行,飼糧配方為等氮不等能量,並以6個3×3拉丁方格設計,每期三週,共計九週。結果顯示,青割玉米青貯料組有較高之乾物質採食量與乳蛋白率(P<0.05),而體增重、乳產量、3.5%乳脂校正乳量及其他乳成分比率則無顯著差異(P>0.05);此外,依溫度與相對濕度換算而得之THI(temperature-humidity index)顯示,試驗期間牛隻幾乎處於中重度熱緊迫中(THI=80~89),此應為影響其生產表現原因之一。試驗二進行瘤胃消化試驗,瘤胃廔管試驗結果得知,瘤胃pH值未受飼糧處理所影響(P>0.05),瘤胃氨態氮濃度以青割玉米青貯料組有較高之趨勢(P=0.08),然而在揮發性脂肪酸方面,三個飼糧處理組間並無發現顯著之差異存在(P>0.05),且各採樣時間點亦無呈現差異(P>0.05)。試驗三,以原位測定法(in situ)評估三種青貯料之瘤胃降解特性,結果顯示,乾物質以青貯玉米青貯料有較高之瘤胃可利用率,且瘤胃快速可利用之部分亦較其他兩組為高,中洗纖維與粗蛋白質之降解現象,與乾物質有相同之趨向。綜合上述結果可知,除採食量與乳蛋白率外,三試驗處理組對於泌乳牛生產性狀並無顯著之影響,根據以上試驗結果發現,尼羅草青貯料對於泌乳牛隻飼養效果與青割玉米青貯料及盤固草青貯料相近,故尼羅草可為一良好國產牧草之選擇。

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of corn silage, pangolagrass silage, and nilegrass silage as part of the diet forage on rumen and milk characteristics of Holstein cows in Taiwan. In trial 1, eighteen lactating Holstein cows were selected which the average DIM was 69-day, producing an average of 28.3 kg of milk daily. The experiment was designed as 33 Latin square which were allotted cows into three dietary treatments. The diets were isonitrogen and were formulated according to NRC(1989) recommendations. The results showed that the dry matter intake and milk protein content of corn silage group was higher (P<0.05). There were no significant effect on milk production, 3.5% FCM and milk compositions except milk protein content (P>0.05). Moreover, the temperature-humidity index was nearly between 80 and 89 indicating that cows were in a serious heat stress environment during the experimental period. The heat stress was the main reason which affected the performance of lactating cows. As regarding rumen characteristics in trial 2, the rumen pH value, acetate, propionate, and acetate/propionate molar percentage were not significantly affected by the dietary treatment (P>0.05). The ammonia concentration tended to increase in the corn silage treatment (P=0.08). As for rumen degradation via method of in situ nylon bag in trial 3, the fast disappearing pool percentage and rumen availability of dry matter was higher on corn silage treatment. There was a similar tendency on the degradation of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber.
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