Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/25517
標題: 不同糖水處理與不同加熱回溫方式對冷凍脆皮烤鴨品質之影響
Effect of different malt sugar marinades and reheating methods on frozen roasted duck
作者: 黃建堤
Huang, Chien-Ti
關鍵字: Frozen;冷凍;Roasted duck;malt sugar marinade;reheating;脆皮烤鴨;麥芽糖水;加熱回溫
出版社: 畜產學系
摘要: 
本試驗係以麥芽糖水中分別添加1%葡萄糖酸內酯、乳酸及碳酸氫鈉作為處理組,並以不作任何處理之麥芽糖水作為對照組,淋於土番鴨屠體,並烘烤製成脆皮烤鴨後分切成二胸二腿,經真空包裝後於-20℃貯存至56天,並於不同的貯存時段逢機採樣,分析pH值、二-硫巴比妥酸值、揮發性鹽基態氮值、總生菌數、厭氧菌數、甲基酯化脂肪酸與游離脂肪酸組成及揮發性風味成分,樣品並於貯存期間利用烤箱及微波爐二種方式再加熱回溫後,作官能品評及流變學特性之測定,以評估糖水處理、貯存時間及再加熱回溫方式對冷凍脆皮烤鴨品質的影響。
結果顯示:處理組與對照組之烤鴨胸肉及腿肉之pH值於-20℃貯存期間,並無顯著差異(p>0.05)。不同麥芽糖水處理對胸肉之TBA值而言,於貯存期間各組之間並無顯著差異;但可發現腿肉TBA值貯存至56天時,1%碳酸氫鈉處理組及對照組之TBA值均較0天者顯著上升(p<0.05)。不同麥芽糖水處理對胸肉及腿肉之VBN值而言,於貯存期間各組別間並無顯著差異。不同麥芽糖水處理對胸肉及腿肉之總生菌數及厭氧菌數而言,第0天時不同處理組及對照組其胸肉及腿肉的總生菌數介於3.1~3.5 log CFU/g之間,而厭氧菌數則介於2.9~3.3 log CFU/g之間,且於儲存期間並無顯著的上升,反而至56天時總生菌數及厭氧菌數均略為下降(p>0.05)。不同麥芽糖水處理對胸肉、腿肉、胸皮及腿皮之甲基酯化脂肪酸及游離脂肪酸組成而言,並不會顯著影響胸肉、腿肉、胸皮及腿皮中甲基酯化脂肪酸及游離脂肪酸組成。但可發現腿肉游離脂肪酸之亞麻仁油酸(C18:2)於貯存至56天時各組間皆無法測得。揮發性成分方面,相同時段各組間其揮發性成分並無顯著差異,但烤鴨貯存至56天時與0天相較,揮發性成分中差別較大的為ethanol、次為n-hexanal。流變學測定方面,相同加熱回溫方式時其鴨胸肉之韌度、彈性及脆度於各組間及不同的貯存時段並無顯著差異(p>0.05)。就綜合結果分析可知,以1%乳酸處理組有最低的胸肉彈性數值,且所有微波加熱回溫的樣品皆有比烤箱者為高的數值表現。另外微波爐加熱回溫的鴨胸肉脆度數值皆比烤箱處理組者為低。烤鴨胸皮的部分,同一加熱回溫處理中,不同糖水處理的鴨胸皮其韌度並無顯著差異,但以烤箱加熱回溫者的數值皆比微波爐處理者為高。而鴨胸皮之彈性及脆度則有與韌度相似的結果,且亦以烤箱加熱回溫者有較佳的彈性及脆度表現。品評方面各處理組及對照組的脆皮烤鴨於貯存期間,不論胸肉或皮的脆度、肉的多汁性及總接受度之品評成績,無論是烤箱或微波爐再加熱回溫處理之樣品,皆隨著貯存時間之增加而品評成績降低。

This study was conducted to use different malt sugar marinades with 1% glucono delta lactone, 1% lactic acid and 1% sodium bicarbonate individually as the treatments and only malt sugar marinade as the control. The roasted ducks were produced by coating of malt sugar marinades and roasting at 180-200℃ for 1 hr. The roasted ducks were cut into four fractions and then vacuum packed and stored at -20℃ for 56 days. The samples were taked at different storage time for determing of pH value, TBA value, VBN value, total plate count, anaerobic plate count, fatty acid methyl esters and free fatty acids and volatile components. The samples were reheated by oven and microwave oven then determined sensory and rheological properties to evaluate the effects of different malt sugar marinades treatments、storage time and reheat methods on the quality of frozen roasted ducks.
The results were as follows: the pH values of roasted duck breast and thigh meat from all treatments and the control were stable during storage at -20℃.
In the aspect of TBA value of the same storage time TBA values of roasted duck breast and thigh meat from all treatments and the control were not significantly different during storage at -20℃; But at the end of storage(56-day), that of 1% sodium bicarbonate and the control both were significantly higher than the samples at beginnings(0 day)(p<0.05).
In the aspect of VBN value, from all treatments and the control VBN values of roasted ducks breast and thigh meat were stable during storage at -20℃.
In the aspect of microbial flora, from all treatments and the control total plate count and anaerobic plate count were of roasted ducks breast and thigh meat from all treatments and the control were from 3.1~3.5 log CFU/g and 2.9~3.3 log CFU/g individually during storage at -20℃.
In the aspect of fatty acid methyl esters and free fatty acid contents, those contents of roasted ducks breast meat, breast skin, thigh meat and thigh skin were not effected by malt sugar marinades treatments; However, linoleic acid of thigh meat of all treatments and the control were not detected at the end of storage.
At the same storage time the volatile components of roasted ducks from all treatments and the control were not significantly different; But storage 56 days at -20℃ ethanol and n-hexanal of volatile components of roasted ducks were different with compared to those at 0 day.
In the same reheating method, the from all treatments and the control toughness、elasticity and brittle of roasted ducks breast meat were not significantly different during storage at -20℃. In overall, breast meat of 1% lactic acid treatment had the lowest elasticity value but all samples reheating by microwave oven had higher elasticity value than those by oven reheating. On the other hand, all breast meat samples with reheating by microwave oven had lower brittle value than that by oven.
In the same reheating method, the toughness、elasticity and brittle of roasted ducks breast skin from all treatments and the control were not significantly different during storage at -20℃, but the samples reheating by oven had higher toughness、elasticity and brittle values than those by microwave oven.
However, with storage time increasing, the skin brittle、meat texture、juiciness and overall acceptance score of roasted ducks breast meat with skin from all treatments and the control significantly decreased during storage at -20℃.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/25517
Appears in Collections:動物科學系

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