Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/25549
標題: 不同結著劑之添加對煙燻水煮雞肝香腸品質的影響
Effects of different binders on the quality of chicken liver sausage
作者: 金鴻榮
King, Hong-Rong
關鍵字: carrageenan;鹿角菜膠;corn syrup solids;whey protein concentrate;soy protein isolate;chicken liver sausage;binder;玉米糖漿粉;濃縮乳清蛋白;單離大豆蛋白;雞肝香腸;結著劑
出版社: 畜產學系
摘要: 
本試驗之主旨在探討四種食品結著劑(鹿角菜膠、玉米糖漿粉、濃縮乳清蛋白及單離大豆蛋白)之添加對煙燻水煮雞肝香腸品質之影響。首先以四種結著劑分別添加不同百分率於產品中,並測定產品蒸煮失重率、流變性及感官品評成績,以決定其最適添加量。再依最適添加量添加結著劑於雞肝香腸產品中,並進行真空包裝,分別置於4℃及-20℃之溫度下進行儲存試驗,以了解雞肝香腸於儲存期間之變化及最佳之展售期限。結果顯
示:在流變性方面,分別添加0.2、0.5、0.8%之鹿角菜膠,及1.0、2.0及3.0%玉米糖漿粉、濃縮乳清蛋白及單離大豆蛋白皆可改善雞肝香腸產品的凝膠強度及破斷強度。其中以濃縮乳清蛋白及單離大豆蛋白對產品的流變性質改善效果較大,而玉米糖漿粉之改善效果較小。感官品評方面,添加單離大豆蛋白會降低產品的風味及總接受性之評分。隨著四種結著劑添加量的增加,產品之總接受性品評分數有逐漸降低之趨勢。在不影響產品品評成績且能增進產品的結著性及切片性下,四種結著劑之最適添加量分別為:鹿角菜膠0.2%,玉米糖漿粉1.0%,濃縮乳清蛋白1.0%及單離大豆蛋白1.0%。
添加四種結著劑可使產品有較高之水分含量及較低之粗脂肪含量。各處理組之雞肝香腸含有膽固醇292.60 ~ 340.31mg/100 g、血質鐵2.37 ~ 3.20mg/100g及非血質鐵3.30~3.97mg/100g。
各組雞肝香腸在冷藏(4℃)儲存期間,總生菌數及厭氧菌數皆隨儲存期間的增加而逐漸增加,於第28天時產品的總生菌數及厭氧菌數皆在6 log CFU/g以下,但開始有不良風味產生。產品的pH值則於儲存期間隨著時間之增加而逐漸降低而二-硫酸巴比妥酸(TBA)值則呈現起伏不穩定的現象。各組之揮發性鹽基態氮(VBN)值亦皆隨儲存時間的增加而增加,其最終的VBN值為34.37~38.63 mg %;各組產品的亞硝酸根殘留量由第0天之41.73~48.37ppm逐漸降低至第28天的22.95~27.19ppm。在產品色澤方面,L值及b值有隨儲存天數的增加而增加之趨勢,而a 值則沒有顯著之變化。各組產品之凝膠強度在4℃儲存28天後其測定值皆較第0天者高。在感官品評方面,各組產品之色澤評分於儲存第7天後逐漸降低,且可發現添加1.0%單離大豆蛋白處理組於儲存21天後各項品評分數皆顯著地比其他處理組低。
各組雞肝香腸於冷凍(-20℃)儲存期間其總生菌數及厭氧菌數皆顯著減少;TBA值及VBN值於儲存期間變化很小。產品之亞硝酸根殘留量則於儲存期間緩慢降低,儲存第90天時各組之亞硝酸根殘留量在35.56~38.35ppm之間。另外在儲存終了時產品的L值及b值有降低,但a值則增加。凝膠強度則於儲存90天後均顯著地提高。產品的各項感官品評成績於儲存期間並無顯著的變化,且皆維持可接受的品評成績。
總結,雞肝香腸中分別添加0.2%鹿角菜膠、1.0%玉米糖漿粉、1.0%濃縮乳清蛋白及1.0%單離大豆蛋白之產品,在4℃冷藏儲存時可存放28天,而在-20℃冷凍儲存時則可存放至少三個月。

The main purpose of this study was to investigate effects of four food binders─carrageenan(carr), corn syrup solids(CSS), whey protein concentrate(WPC), and soy protein isolate(SPI),on
the quality of smoked-cooked chicken liver sausage. At first, dependind on the results of evaluation of the cooking loss, rheological properties, and sensory panel scores of chicken liver sausage products with these four binders by different levels, we tried to seekout a suitable level for products. Then, liver sausages were made with these four binders by a suitable level, respectively, and stored at the temperatures of 4℃ and -20℃ for understanding the changes of quality and optimum shelf life of the products during storage.
The results were as followings: in rheological properties, a level of 0.2, 0.5, 0.8% carr, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0% CSS, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0% WPC, and 1.0, 2.0, 3.0% SPI were added with chicken liver sausage, respectively, can improve the gel strength and breaking strength. The improved effeciency of WPC and SPI on the rheological properties of liver sausage were more remarkable than the others, while CSS had the least effect. In sensory properties, the addition of SPI reduced the flavor and overall acceptance of the products, and the overall acceptance scores of products decreased by the increasing levels of four binders. The suitable level of these four binders were carr 0.2%, CSS 1.0%, WPC 1.0%, and SPI 1.0%, individually, in this study depending on the sensory properties, binding ability and slicing.
The higher moisture and lower fat contents were found in chicken liver sausages with these four binders. The total cholesterol, heme iron, and non-heme iron contents of all samples were 292.60~340.31 mg/100g, 2.37~3.20 mg/100g, and 3.30~3.97 mg/100g, respectively.
During cold storage at 4℃, the total plate counts(TPC) and anaerobic plate counts(APC) of all samples increased with storage time increasing. At the 28th day, the TPC and APC of all samples were lower than 6 log CFU/g, but a off-flavor be smelled. The pH values of all samples decreased gradually with storage time increasing, while the TBA(2-thiobarbituric acid) values were unstable during storage. The VBN(volatile basic nitrogen) values of all samples increased with storage time increasing. At the end of storage, the VBN values of products were 34.37~38.63 mg %. The nitrite residues of all samples were 41.73~48.37 ppm at the initial and down to 22.95~27.19 ppm at the 28th day. In the color of products, the L-value and b-value of all samples increased with storage time increasing, but no differences for a-value were observed during storage. The gel strength of all samples at the 28th day were higher than at the 0 day's. In sensory properties, the color scores of all samples decreased gradually after the 7th day during storage. At the 21th day, the product of SPI treatment had significantly lowest panel scores among all treatments.
During frozen storage at -20℃, the TPC and APC of all samples decreased gradually with storage time. The TBA and VBN values of all samples maintained stable during storage. At the 90th day, the nitrite residues of all samples were 35.56~38.35 ppm. The L-value and b-value decreased while a-value increased at the end of storage. The gel strength of all samples increased singnificantly at the 90th day. No differences were found in sensory properties of all samples during frozen storage.
In conclusion, chicken liver sausage products with 0.2% carrageenan, 1.0% corn syrup solids,1.0% whey protein concentrate and 1.0% soy protein isolate, respectively, had the shelf life of 28 days during cold storage at 4℃ and at least 3 months during frozen storage at -20℃.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/25549
Appears in Collections:動物科學系

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