Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/25549
DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.advisor劉登城zh_TW
dc.contributor.advisorMing-Tsao Chenen_US
dc.contributor.advisor陳明造zh_TW
dc.contributor.author金鴻榮zh_TW
dc.contributor.authorKing, Hong-Rongen_US
dc.date1999zh_TW
dc.date.accessioned2014-06-06T07:25:21Z-
dc.date.available2014-06-06T07:25:21Z-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11455/25549-
dc.description.abstract本試驗之主旨在探討四種食品結著劑(鹿角菜膠、玉米糖漿粉、濃縮乳清蛋白及單離大豆蛋白)之添加對煙燻水煮雞肝香腸品質之影響。首先以四種結著劑分別添加不同百分率於產品中,並測定產品蒸煮失重率、流變性及感官品評成績,以決定其最適添加量。再依最適添加量添加結著劑於雞肝香腸產品中,並進行真空包裝,分別置於4℃及-20℃之溫度下進行儲存試驗,以了解雞肝香腸於儲存期間之變化及最佳之展售期限。結果顯 示:在流變性方面,分別添加0.2、0.5、0.8%之鹿角菜膠,及1.0、2.0及3.0%玉米糖漿粉、濃縮乳清蛋白及單離大豆蛋白皆可改善雞肝香腸產品的凝膠強度及破斷強度。其中以濃縮乳清蛋白及單離大豆蛋白對產品的流變性質改善效果較大,而玉米糖漿粉之改善效果較小。感官品評方面,添加單離大豆蛋白會降低產品的風味及總接受性之評分。隨著四種結著劑添加量的增加,產品之總接受性品評分數有逐漸降低之趨勢。在不影響產品品評成績且能增進產品的結著性及切片性下,四種結著劑之最適添加量分別為:鹿角菜膠0.2%,玉米糖漿粉1.0%,濃縮乳清蛋白1.0%及單離大豆蛋白1.0%。 添加四種結著劑可使產品有較高之水分含量及較低之粗脂肪含量。各處理組之雞肝香腸含有膽固醇292.60 ~ 340.31mg/100 g、血質鐵2.37 ~ 3.20mg/100g及非血質鐵3.30~3.97mg/100g。 各組雞肝香腸在冷藏(4℃)儲存期間,總生菌數及厭氧菌數皆隨儲存期間的增加而逐漸增加,於第28天時產品的總生菌數及厭氧菌數皆在6 log CFU/g以下,但開始有不良風味產生。產品的pH值則於儲存期間隨著時間之增加而逐漸降低而二-硫酸巴比妥酸(TBA)值則呈現起伏不穩定的現象。各組之揮發性鹽基態氮(VBN)值亦皆隨儲存時間的增加而增加,其最終的VBN值為34.37~38.63 mg %;各組產品的亞硝酸根殘留量由第0天之41.73~48.37ppm逐漸降低至第28天的22.95~27.19ppm。在產品色澤方面,L值及b值有隨儲存天數的增加而增加之趨勢,而a 值則沒有顯著之變化。各組產品之凝膠強度在4℃儲存28天後其測定值皆較第0天者高。在感官品評方面,各組產品之色澤評分於儲存第7天後逐漸降低,且可發現添加1.0%單離大豆蛋白處理組於儲存21天後各項品評分數皆顯著地比其他處理組低。 各組雞肝香腸於冷凍(-20℃)儲存期間其總生菌數及厭氧菌數皆顯著減少;TBA值及VBN值於儲存期間變化很小。產品之亞硝酸根殘留量則於儲存期間緩慢降低,儲存第90天時各組之亞硝酸根殘留量在35.56~38.35ppm之間。另外在儲存終了時產品的L值及b值有降低,但a值則增加。凝膠強度則於儲存90天後均顯著地提高。產品的各項感官品評成績於儲存期間並無顯著的變化,且皆維持可接受的品評成績。 總結,雞肝香腸中分別添加0.2%鹿角菜膠、1.0%玉米糖漿粉、1.0%濃縮乳清蛋白及1.0%單離大豆蛋白之產品,在4℃冷藏儲存時可存放28天,而在-20℃冷凍儲存時則可存放至少三個月。zh_TW
dc.description.abstractThe main purpose of this study was to investigate effects of four food binders─carrageenan(carr), corn syrup solids(CSS), whey protein concentrate(WPC), and soy protein isolate(SPI),on the quality of smoked-cooked chicken liver sausage. At first, dependind on the results of evaluation of the cooking loss, rheological properties, and sensory panel scores of chicken liver sausage products with these four binders by different levels, we tried to seekout a suitable level for products. Then, liver sausages were made with these four binders by a suitable level, respectively, and stored at the temperatures of 4℃ and -20℃ for understanding the changes of quality and optimum shelf life of the products during storage. The results were as followings: in rheological properties, a level of 0.2, 0.5, 0.8% carr, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0% CSS, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0% WPC, and 1.0, 2.0, 3.0% SPI were added with chicken liver sausage, respectively, can improve the gel strength and breaking strength. The improved effeciency of WPC and SPI on the rheological properties of liver sausage were more remarkable than the others, while CSS had the least effect. In sensory properties, the addition of SPI reduced the flavor and overall acceptance of the products, and the overall acceptance scores of products decreased by the increasing levels of four binders. The suitable level of these four binders were carr 0.2%, CSS 1.0%, WPC 1.0%, and SPI 1.0%, individually, in this study depending on the sensory properties, binding ability and slicing. The higher moisture and lower fat contents were found in chicken liver sausages with these four binders. The total cholesterol, heme iron, and non-heme iron contents of all samples were 292.60~340.31 mg/100g, 2.37~3.20 mg/100g, and 3.30~3.97 mg/100g, respectively. During cold storage at 4℃, the total plate counts(TPC) and anaerobic plate counts(APC) of all samples increased with storage time increasing. At the 28th day, the TPC and APC of all samples were lower than 6 log CFU/g, but a off-flavor be smelled. The pH values of all samples decreased gradually with storage time increasing, while the TBA(2-thiobarbituric acid) values were unstable during storage. The VBN(volatile basic nitrogen) values of all samples increased with storage time increasing. At the end of storage, the VBN values of products were 34.37~38.63 mg %. The nitrite residues of all samples were 41.73~48.37 ppm at the initial and down to 22.95~27.19 ppm at the 28th day. In the color of products, the L-value and b-value of all samples increased with storage time increasing, but no differences for a-value were observed during storage. The gel strength of all samples at the 28th day were higher than at the 0 day's. In sensory properties, the color scores of all samples decreased gradually after the 7th day during storage. At the 21th day, the product of SPI treatment had significantly lowest panel scores among all treatments. During frozen storage at -20℃, the TPC and APC of all samples decreased gradually with storage time. The TBA and VBN values of all samples maintained stable during storage. At the 90th day, the nitrite residues of all samples were 35.56~38.35 ppm. The L-value and b-value decreased while a-value increased at the end of storage. The gel strength of all samples increased singnificantly at the 90th day. No differences were found in sensory properties of all samples during frozen storage. In conclusion, chicken liver sausage products with 0.2% carrageenan, 1.0% corn syrup solids,1.0% whey protein concentrate and 1.0% soy protein isolate, respectively, had the shelf life of 28 days during cold storage at 4℃ and at least 3 months during frozen storage at -20℃.en_US
dc.description.tableofcontents目 次 頁次 壹、 中 文 摘 要……………………………………………………1 貳、 緒言…………………………………………………………….4 參、 文 獻 檢 討……………………………………………………6 一、雞肝營養價值特性……………………………………………..6 (一) 一般化學組成………………………………………………6 (二) 維生素與礦物質……………………………………………7 (三) 脂肪酸組成及膽固醇含量……………………………….10 二、雞肝臟組織之功能性質…………………………………….…11 三、禽畜動物肝臟在肉品上的利用………………………….……12 四、雞肝之藥物殘留問題………………………………………….14 五、食品結著劑…………………………………………………….16 (一)鹿角菜膠……………………………………………………17 1.來源及種類……………………………………………….17 2.性質……………………………………………………….18 3.在肉品加工上的應用…………………………………….20 (二)大豆蛋白……………………………………………………23 1.組成及種類……………………………………………….23 2.功能性質………………………………………………….28 3.在肉品加工上的應用…………………………………….31 (三)乳清蛋白…………………………………………………..33 1.營養組成………………………………………………….34 2.功能性質………………………………………………….34 3.在肉品加工上的應用…………………………………….38 肆、材料與方法…………………………………………………….41 一、預備試驗……………………………………………………….41 (一)雞肝香腸之製備……………………………………………41 1.原料……....………………………………………………..41 2.配方……………………………………………………….41 3.製作流程………………………………………………….42 二、試驗設計與處理……………………………………………….43 三、分析方法……………………………………………………….44 (一)蒸煮失重率…………………………………………………44 (二)流變性………………………………………………………44 (三)官能品評……………………………………………………45 (四)一般營養組成、鐵質及膽固醇含量………………………46 (五)乳化容量……………………………………………………49 (六)乳化安定性…………………………………………………49 (七)pH值………………………………………………………..50 (八)揮發性鹽基態氮(VBN)值………………………………….50 (九)二-硫巴比妥酸(TBA)值……………………………………52 (十)總生菌數……………………………………………………53 (十一)厭氣菌數……………………….……………………….53 (十二)亞硝酸根殘留量…………………………………………54 (十三)色澤………………………………………………………56 (十四)統計分析…………………………………………………56 伍、結果與討論…………………………………………………….57 一、預備試驗……………………………………………………….57 (一)添加不同比率之結著劑對雞肝香腸 蒸煮失重率之影響…….…………………………...………..57 (二)添加不同比率之結著劑對雞肝香腸 流變性之影響………...………………………………....57 (三)添加不同比率之結著劑對雞肝香腸 感官品評之影響………………………………………….…65 (四)不同結著劑於雞肝香腸中之最適添加量………………..66 二、結著劑之添加對雞肝肉糊乳化特性之影響………………….72 三、雞肝香腸營養組成之分析…………………………………….73 (一)一般化學組成………………………………………………73 (二)總膽固醇、血質鐵及非血質鐵含量….………………….75 四、儲存試驗………………….……………...….………………76 (一)pH值………………………………………………...…….76 (二)總生菌數及厭氣菌數………………………………………78 (三)二-硫巴比妥酸(TBA)值……………………………………81 (四)揮發性鹽基態氮(VBN)值………………………………….86 (五)亞硝酸根殘留量……………………………………………87 (六)色澤…………………………………………………………89 (七)凝膠強度……………………………………………………93 (八)感官品評……………………………………………………96 陸、結 論………………………………………………………….109 柒、參 考 文 獻………………………………………………….112 捌、英文摘要………………………………………………………122 表 次 頁次 表 1、雞肝與瘦豬肉、雞肉營養組成之比較……………….…….9 表 2、主要大豆球蛋白的分子量、等電點及胺基酸組成……….25 表 3、大豆蛋白製品的一般化學組成…………………………….27 表 4、雞肝香腸之配方組成………………..…………………….42 表 5、雞肝香腸添加不同百分率鹿角菜膠之流變性分析……….61 表 6、雞肝香腸添加不同百分率玉米糖漿粉之流變性分 析…………………………………………………………….62 表 7、雞肝香腸添加不同百分率濃縮乳清蛋白之流變性 分析………………………………………………………….63 表 8、雞肝香腸添加不同百分率單離大豆蛋白之流變性 分析………………………………………………………….64 表 9、添加各種不同百分率結著劑之雞肝香腸感官品評 成績………………………………………………………….68 表10、添加不同結著劑對雞肝肉糊乳化特性之影響………74 表11、添加不同結著劑之雞肝香腸的一般化學組成…………….77 表12、添加不同結著劑之雞肝香腸的總膽固醇、血質鐵 及非血質鐵含量……..………………………………….77 表13、雞肝香腸於4℃冷藏儲存期間總生菌數及厭氣菌數 之變化……………………………………………….83 表14、雞肝香腸於-20℃冷凍儲藏期間總生菌數及厭氣菌數 之變化……………………………………………………..84 表15、雞肝香腸於4℃冷藏儲存期間色澤之變化………….94 表16、雞肝香腸於-20℃冷凍儲藏期間色澤之變化……….95 表17、雞肝香腸於4℃冷藏儲存期間凝膠強度之變化…….98 表18、雞肝香腸於-20℃冷凍儲藏期間凝膠強度之變化……98 表19、添加不同結著劑之雞肝香腸在冷藏儲存期間(4℃) 色澤之品評得分……………………………………..99 表20、添加不同結著劑之雞肝香腸在冷藏儲存期間(4℃) 風味之品評得分……………………………………….….100 表21、添加不同結著劑之雞肝香腸在冷藏儲存期間(4℃) 質地之品評得分…………………………………………..101 表22、添加不同結著劑之雞肝香腸在冷藏儲存期間(4℃) 多汁性之品評得分………………………………………..102 表23、添加不同結著劑之雞肝香腸在冷藏儲存期間(4℃) 總接受性之品評得分…………………………………….103 表24、添加不同結著劑之雞肝香腸在冷凍儲存期間(-20℃) 色澤之品評得分…………………………………………104 表25、添加不同結著劑之雞肝香腸在冷凍儲存期間(-20℃) 風味之品評得分………………………………………..105 表26、添加不同結著劑之雞肝香腸在冷凍儲存期間(-20℃) 質地之品評得分……………………………………….106 表27、添加不同結著劑之雞肝香腸在冷凍儲存期間(-20℃) 多汁性之品評得分……………………………………….107 表28、添加不同結著劑之雞肝香腸在冷凍儲存期間(-20℃) 總接受性之品評得分……………………………………108 圖 次 頁次 圖1、鹿角菜膠分子之化學結構………………………….……...19 圖2 a.、Smidstrød及Grasdalen提出之鹿角菜膠凝膠機制. 之模式……………………………………………………...22 圖2 b、Robinson等人提出之鹿角菜膠凝膠機制之模式……..…22 圖3、乳清蛋白凝膠過程之示意圖…………………………......40 圖4、添加各種不同百分率結著劑之雞肝香腸之蒸煮失 重率……………………………………………………………58 圖5、未添加結著劑之雞肝香腸之照相圖…………………………69 圖6、添加0.2%鹿角菜膠之雞肝香腸之照相圖……..……………69 圖7、添加1.0%玉米糖漿粉之雞肝香腸之照相圖….…………….70 圖8、添加1.0%濃縮乳清蛋白之雞肝香腸之照相圖……………..70 圖9、添加1.0%單離大豆蛋白之雞肝香腸之照相圖………..……71 圖10、添加不同結著劑之雞肝香腸在冷藏儲存期間(4℃) pH值之變化………………………………………………….82 圖11、添加不同結著劑之雞肝香腸在冷凍儲存期間 (-20℃)pH值之變化…………………………………………82 圖12、添加不同結著劑之雞肝香腸在冷藏儲存期間(4℃) TBA值之變化………………………………………………..90 圖13、添加不同結著劑之雞肝香腸在冷凍儲存期間(-20℃) TBA值之變化………………………………………………..90 圖14、添加不同結著劑之雞肝香腸在冷藏儲存期間(4℃) VBN值之變化……………………………………….…….…91 圖15、添加不同結著劑之雞肝香腸在冷凍儲存期間(-20℃) VBN值之變化………………………………………………..91 圖16、添加不同結著劑之雞肝香腸在冷藏儲存期間(4℃) 亞硝酸根殘留量之變化…………………………………….92 圖17、添加不同結著劑之雞肝香腸在冷凍儲存期間(-20℃) 亞硝酸根殘留量之變化…………………………………….92zh_TW
dc.language.isoen_USzh_TW
dc.publisher畜產學系zh_TW
dc.subjectcarrageenanen_US
dc.subject鹿角菜膠zh_TW
dc.subjectcorn syrup solidsen_US
dc.subjectwhey protein concentrateen_US
dc.subjectsoy protein isolateen_US
dc.subjectchicken liver sausageen_US
dc.subjectbinderen_US
dc.subject玉米糖漿粉zh_TW
dc.subject濃縮乳清蛋白zh_TW
dc.subject單離大豆蛋白zh_TW
dc.subject雞肝香腸zh_TW
dc.subject結著劑zh_TW
dc.title不同結著劑之添加對煙燻水煮雞肝香腸品質的影響zh_TW
dc.titleEffects of different binders on the quality of chicken liver sausageen_US
dc.typeThesis and Dissertationzh_TW
item.grantfulltextnone-
item.openairetypeThesis and Dissertation-
item.languageiso639-1en_US-
item.openairecristypehttp://purl.org/coar/resource_type/c_18cf-
item.cerifentitytypePublications-
item.fulltextno fulltext-
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