Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/25559
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dc.contributor.advisor范揚廣zh_TW
dc.contributor.advisorYang-Kwang Fan, Ph. D.en_US
dc.contributor.author張伸彰zh_TW
dc.contributor.authorChang, Shen-Changen_US
dc.date1999zh_TW
dc.date.accessioned2014-06-06T07:25:22Z-
dc.date.available2014-06-06T07:25:22Z-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11455/25559-
dc.description.abstract本試驗目的欲瞭解以三碘甲狀腺素(T3)廣面性促進能量代謝及多巴胺(Dopamine; Dopa)抑制腸道氧吸收作用,兩者施用於白肉雞雛對其生長性狀和小腸能量代謝的影響,藉以瞭解調節小腸能量代謝與肉雞之生長性狀間之關係。 試驗一之目的欲瞭解T3或Dopa以腹腔注射或口服投與之施用方式,對6-15日齡白肉雞雛之生長性狀、腸道以及其他臟器增重之影響,以尋求影響之反應曲面。六日齡雞雛秤重後逢機分配至十一種處理組,即腹腔注射0、0.37、0.74、1.48、2.96μmole T3/(Kg BW)及0、0.07、0.14、0.28、0.56μmole Dopa /(Kg BW)以及未注射之對照組、T3溶劑或Dopa溶劑等,每個處理組有6隻雞隻,並進行四重複,共計264隻雛雞,結果顯示除注射2.96μmole T3/(Kg BW)之雛其心臟重佔空體重百分比較對照組之雛雞者高外,其他性狀未受顯著之影響。另以六日齡雞雛秤重後逢機分配於0.56、1.12、2.24、4.48μmole T3/(Kg Diet)及0.40、0.80、1.60、3.20μmole Dopa /(Kg Diet)和對照組等九種飼糧處理組,每個處理組有6隻雛雞,並進行四重複,共計216隻雛雞,結果顯示T3用量(X,μmole/Kg Diet)對增重(Y1, g)及飼料消耗量(Y2, g)之影響分別為Y1=310-21.5X(R2=0.868; P=0.0001)及Y2=398-22.3X(R2=0.765; P=0.0001),飼料轉換率、肝臟重、小腸各部位重、十二指腸長、肌胃佔空體重百分比、每公斤空體重含十二指腸長、空腸長、迴腸長及每單位空腸長度之重量等均有相似之線性反應,然而,飼糧T3添加量(X, μmole/Kg Diet)對心臟重(Y4, g)之影響為Y4=2.58+0.89X-0.17X2(R2=0.526; P<0.01),胰臟重、肌胃重、心臟重佔空體重百分比或胰臟重佔空體重百分比等均有相似之二次曲線反應。心臟重佔空體重百分比(Z1, %)對飼糧Dopa添加量(X1, μmole/Kg Diet)之迴歸為Z1=0.64+0.24 X1-0.23 X12+0.05 X13 (R2=0.868; P=0.0379)。 試驗二之目的欲瞭解6-12日齡白肉雞雛餵飼添加T3或Dopa之飼糧對其小腸組織耗氧量和小腸鈉泵(Na+,K+-ATPase)耗氧百分率之影響。利用120隻6日齡白肉雞雛,進行秤重並逢機分配至分別添加0.7、2.4 µ mole Dopa/(Kg Diet)或1.9、3.8 µ mole T3/(Kg Diet)及未添加之對照組等五種飼糧之處理,並重複四次。於12日齡時,將各處理組逢機取三隻雛雞,以商用肉雞飼糧飼養至48日齡。結果顯示飼糧T3添加量(X, µ mole/Kg Diet)對十二指腸耗氧量(Y14, μmole O2 min-1g-1 g)之影響分別為Y14=2.64+0.33X(R2=0.164; P=0.0144),空腸耗氧量、空腸Na+,K+-ATPase耗氧量百分比等亦均有類似的直線反應。飼料轉換率、體增重、肌胃重、小腸各段落長度、空腸重、肌胃佔空體重百分比、迴腸每單位面積之重量(mg/mm2)、盲腸之長度與重量、小腸之長度與重量等均隨飼糧T3添加量增加而降低,然而,飼糧T3添加量(X, μmole/Kg Diet)對腹脂塊重(Y17, g)之影響為Y17=2.12+1.26X-0.20X2(R2=0.789; P=0.0001),胰臟重、甲狀腺重、迴腸重、甲狀腺重佔空體重百分比、腹脂塊重佔空體重百分比等亦有類似二次曲線反應。相關分析顯示小腸重量和長度與增重之間呈顯著負相關,小腸各段落之組織其耗氧量與其密度(mg/mm2)呈顯著負相關。6-12日齡雛雞餵飼添加T3飼糧對其腹脂重、甲狀腺重等佔空體重百分比均顯著較對照組者低(P=0.001),此表示T3因促進能量代謝而使腹脂蓄積減少及甲狀腺因迴饋抑制而萎縮。6-12日齡白肉雞雛餵飼添加T3之飼糧對其50日齡之腹脂重、甲狀腺重兩者佔空體重百分率與餵飼對照組飼糧者無顯著差異。6-12日齡雛雞餵飼添加0.7、2.4 µ mole Dopa/(Kg Diet)或1.9、3.8 µ mole T3/(Kg Diet)之飼糧對其14日齡小腸耗氧量無顯著影響,但其14日齡之空體重校正後小腸耗氧量分別較對照組者提升28.0、16.3或21.6、43.2%。雛雞餵飼添加1.9、3.8 µ mole T3/(Kg Diet)之飼糧對其6-12日齡體增重抑制13.6、20.3%,且其14日齡胸肉重降低16.5、11.1%。然而,雛雞餵飼添加Dopa之飼糧對其14日齡胸肉重抑制3.6、4.8%。(關鍵語:白肉雞雛、三碘甲狀腺素、多巴胺、小腸能量代謝)zh_TW
dc.description.abstractThe objectives of this experiment were to investigate the extent of association between regulating small intestinal energy metabolism and growth performance in broiler chicken basing on the effects of administration of either T3, which broadly enhances whole body energy metabolism, or dopamine (Dopa), which declines intestinal oxygen uptake, on the growth performance and small intestinal oxygen consumption. The objectives of the first experiment were to investigate an optimal way, either peritoneally injection or dietary supplementation, of administration of T3 or dopamine to broiler chicks during 6-15 day-old on their growth performance, intestinal weights, and weights of other organs. Six 6-day-old chicks were randomly allotted into one of the 11 treatments. The 11 treatments were peritoneally injected 0, 0.37, 0.74, 1.48, and 2.96mole T3/(Kg BW) , or 0, 0.07, 0.14, 0.28, and 0.56mole Dopa/(Kg BW) as well as a control that was without injection. After 4 replications, there was a total of 264 chicks used. The results showed that the heart weight % of feed-deprived body weight of the chicks injected 2.96mole T3/(Kg BW) was higher than that of control. Other variables measured were not significantly different among the treatments. Another trial in the experiment 1, Six 6-day-old chicks, after body weight measured, were randomly allotted into 9 treatments, namely, dietary supplementation of 0.56, 1.12, 2.24, and 4.48mole T3/(Kg diet), or 0.40, 0.80, 1.60, and 3.20mole Dopa/(Kg diet) as well as a control that was not supplemented. After 4 replication proceeded, there was a total of 216 chicks used. The results of this trial showed that the effects of T3(X, mole/kg feeds) on body weight gain(Y1,g) and feed consumption(Y2,g) were Y1=310-21.5X (R2=0.868; P=0.0001) and Y2=398-22.3X (R2=0.765; P=0.0001), respectively. The feed conversion ratio, the weight of liver, the weights of various intestinal segments, the length of duodenum , the gizzard weight % of feed-deprived body weight (FDBW), the duodenal length of per Kg FDBW, the jejunal length, the ileal length, and the weight per cm jejunal length all had similar linear responses. However, the effect of dietary T3 supplementation (X, mole/Kg diet) on the heart weight (Y4, g) was Y4=2.58+0.98X-0.17 X2 (R2=0.526; P<0.01). The weight of pancreas, the weight of gizzard, and the heart weight % of FDBW or the pancreas weight % of FDBW all had similar second order curve response. The regression of the heart weight % of FDBW (Z1, %) on dietary Dopa supplementation (X1, mole/Kg diet) was Z1=0.64+0.24 X1-0.23 X12+0.05 X13 (R2=0.868; P<0.0379). The objective of the second experiment was to understand the effects of T3 or Dopa supplement in diet of 6-12 day-old broiler chicks on their small intestinal oxygen consumption and their sodium pump(Na+, K+-ATPase) oxygen consumption percentage in the small intestine. One hundred and twenty six-day-old broiler chicks, after body weight measured, were randomly allotted into 5 treatments, namely, dietary supplementation of 0.7, and 2.4mole Dopa/(Kg diet), or 1.9, and 3.8mole T3/(Kg diet) as well as a control that was not supplemented. They were replicated four times. At age of 12 days, three chicks randomly taken from each treatment were pooled in a group and fed with commercial chicken feeds until 48 day-old. The results showed the effect of dietary T3 supplement (X, mole/Kg diet) on duodenal oxygen consumption (Y14, mole O2 min-1g-1) was that Y14=2.64+0.33X (R2=0.164; P=0.0144). Both the jejunal oxygen consumption, and the jejunal sodium pump oxygen consumption percentage had the similar linear response. The feed conversion ration, the body weight gain, the gizzard weight, the lengths of various intestinal segments, the jejunal weight, the gizzard weight % of FDBW, the ileal density (mg/mm2), the length and weight of the caeca, and the length and weight of small intestine all decreased as the dietary supplement of T3 increased. However, the effect of dietary supplement of T3 (X, mole/Kg diet) on abdominal fat pad weight (Y17, g) was that Y17=2.12+1.26X-0.20X2 (R2=0.789; P=0.0001). The pancreas weight, the thyroid weight, the ileal weight, the thyroid weight % of FDBW, and the abdominal fat pad weight % of FDBW all had similar second order curvilinear response. The partial correlation analysis showed that the weight and the length of the small intestine negatively correlated with body weight gain, and the oxygen consumption of the various small intestinal segments had negative correlation with their respective densities (mg/mm2). When T3 was supplemented in the diet of 6-12 day-old chicks, the abdominal fat pad weight and the thyroid weight % of FDBW were lowered (P<0.001). This implied that T3 enhanced energy metabolism, which in turn caused decrease in abdominal fat, and thyroid gland shrunk was due to its feedback inhibition. Diet supplemented with T3 for 6-12 day-old broiler chicks made no significant influences on either the abdominal fat pad weight % or the thyroid weight % of FDBW when they were 50 day-old. Supplement of 0.7, and 2.4mole Dopa/(Kg diet) or 1.9, and 3.8mole T3/(Kg diet) to the diet for 14 days broiler chicks had no influence on their small intestinal oxygen consumption. After corrected by FDBW, the small intestinal oxygen consumption at age of 14 days in the treatments mentioned previously, however, increased 28.0, 16.3, 21.6, and 43.2%, respectively. Supplement of 1.9, or 3.8mole T3/(Kg diet) in diet during 6-12 day-old decreased the body weight gain of the birds by 13.6 and 20.3%, respectively. The breast muscle weight measured at age of 14 days also decreased 16.5 and 11.1% by the same T3 treatments. Whereas, the breast muscle weight at age of 14 days was decreased 3.6 and 4.8% by dietary supplement of 0.7, and 2.4mole Dopa, respectively. (Key Words: Broiler Chicks,Triiodothyronine, Dopamine, Small Intestinal Energy Metabolism )en_US
dc.description.tableofcontents目 錄 頁次 壹、中文摘要…………………….………………………………1 貳、前言………..………………………………………………...4 參、文獻檢討………….………………………………..………..5 一、胃腸道之解剖學之比較和消化吸收………..………....5 (一)雞隻之消化道系統………………………………….5 1、口腔………………………………..………...…..5 2、食道…………………………………..………….5 3、嗉囊……………………………………..….……5 4、腺胃…………………………………..…..…… ..6 5、肌胃………………………………..………...…..6 6、小腸…………………………………..………….6 7、盲腸……………………………………..….……6 8、結直腸………………………………..…..…… ..6 9、泄殖腔……………………………..………...…..6 (二)雞隻消化道的發生學…...………………..…………7 (三)雞隻小腸的組織型態學構造……………....……….8 二、腸道之能量代謝…………………………..…………...8 (一)鈉泵(Na+,K+-ATPase)的能量消耗………..…..…9 1、鈉泵(Na+,K+-ATPase)的結構和功能………..9 2、小腸的能量代謝和維持電化學梯度之間關係.11 (二)影響鈉泵活性的因子…………………………..….13 1、甲狀腺素……………………………………….13 2、生長激素……………………………………….13 3、胰島素………………………………………….14 4、其他因子……………………………………….14 5、遺傳因子………………………………………..14 (三)蛋白質合成的能量需要……………………..……17 (四)影響蛋白質合成和降解之能量的因素…………..18 1、甲狀腺素……………………………………….18 2、胰島素……………….………………………….19 3、生長激素………………….……………………20 4、年齡………………….…………………………20 (五)影響蛋白質降解之因子……………..……………22 三、三碘甲狀腺和多巴胺的生化功能…………………...22 (一)三碘甲狀腺(T3)的形成與作用方式………………22 (二)T3的半衰期(half-life)…………….……………..23 (三)多巴胺的形成與作用方式…………………………23 四、結論………….…………………………………………24 肆、材料與方法…………………………………………………25 一、試驗一…………………………………………………25 (一)試驗雞隻…………………………………………….25 (二)試驗設計與處理……………………………………25 (三)採樣與分析………………….………..…………….25 (四)統計分析……………………………………………26 二、試驗二…………………………………………………27 (一)試驗雞隻…………………………………………….27 (二)試驗設計與處理……………………………………27 (三)採樣與分析………………….………..…………….27 1、屠體、臟器、腸道之重量與長度……………27 2、小腸組織耗氧量之測定………………………28 (四)統計分析……………………………………………29 伍、結果與討論…………………………………………………30 一、試驗一…………………………………………………30 (一)腹腔注射T3或Dopa對7-15日齡白肉雞雛生長 、臟器、腸道性狀之影響(試驗一)……….……30 1、腹腔注射T3或Dopa對7-15日齡白肉雞 雛生長性狀之影響(試驗一)…………..……30 2、腹腔注射T3或Dopa對16日齡白肉雞 雛臟器性狀之影響(試驗一)…….…..……30 3、腹腔注射T3或Dopa 對16日齡白肉雞 雛腸道之影響(試驗一)… …………..……30 (二)飼糧添加T3或Dopa 對7-15日齡白肉雞雛生長 、臟器、腸道性狀之影響(試驗一)…………..….36 1、飼糧添加T3或Dopa 對7-15日齡白肉雞 雛生長性狀之影響(試驗一)…………...….36 2、飼糧添加T3或Dopa對16日齡白肉雞雛 臟器性狀之影響(試驗一)…………..…….37 3、飼糧添加T3或Dopa 對16日齡白肉雞雛 腸道性狀之影響(試驗一)….…….……….38 4、各測定性狀等對飼糧T3添加量(X, μmol/Kg Diet)之迴歸關係(試驗一)…...43 二、試驗二…………………………………………….……45 (一)餵飼添加0.7、2.4μmol Dopa 或1.9、3.8μmol T3/(Kg Diet)對6-12日齡雞雛之生長、臟器、 屠體、腸道性狀和小腸組織耗氧量等性狀之 影響(試驗二)……………………………………..45 1、飼糧添加T3 或Dopa對6-12日齡雞雛 生長性狀之影響(試驗二)….....……..……45 2、飼糧添加T3或Dopa對14日齡雞雛臟器 、屠體性狀之影響(試驗二)………………45 3、飼糧添加T3或Dopa對14日齡雞雛腸道 性狀之影響(試驗二)……..………….……46 4、飼糧添加T3或Dopa對14日齡雞雛小 腸組織耗氧量之影響(試驗二)……………50 5、飼糧添加T3或Dopa 對14日齡雞雛 小腸密度(mg/ mm2)之影響(試驗二)….51 (二)各測定性狀等對飼糧T3添加量(X, μmol /Kg Diet)之迴歸關係(試驗二)……………………….54 (三)各測定性狀間之相關(試驗二)……..…………………54 (四)6-12日齡雛餵飼添加0.7、2.4μmol Dopa 或1.9 、3.8μmol T3/(Kg Diet)之飼糧對其12-48日 齡之生長、臟器、屠體、腸道和小腸耗氧量等 性狀之影響(試驗二)…………..…………….….……59 1、6-12日齡雛餵飼添加T3或Dopa 之 飼糧對其12-48日齡生長性狀的影 響(試驗二)………………………………....59 2、6-12日齡雛餵飼添加T3或Dopa之 飼糧對其50日齡之臟器、屠體性狀 的影響(試驗二)…………………………...59 3、6-12日齡雛餵飼添加T3或Dopa之 飼糧對其50日齡之腸道性狀的影響 (試驗二)……………………………………59 4、6-12日齡雛餵飼添加T3或Dopa之 飼糧對其50日齡之小腸耗氧量之影 響(試驗二)………………………..………59 5、6-12日齡雛餵飼添加T3或Dopa之飼 糧對50日齡之小腸密度(mg/ mm2) 之影響(試驗二)…………….………………60 陸、結論………………………………………………………….65 柒、參考文獻…………………………………………………….66 捌、英文摘要…………………………………………………….81 表 次 名 稱 頁次 表1 體外測定胃腸道組織耗氧量和其鈉泵(Na+,K+-ATPase) 耗氧量所佔之比例…………………………….……………….12 表2 化學物質或生理現象對動物組織鈉泵活性之影 響.……..………………………………………………………...16 表3動物小腸蛋白質合成速率之差 異….....………………………………………………..………....18 表4化學物質或生理狀態對動物組織蛋白質合成率之影響…….21 表5腹腔注射T3或Dopa對7-15日齡白肉雞雛生長性 狀之影響(試驗一)………………………………………..….32 表6腹腔注射T 3或Dopa對16日齡白肉雞雛臟器重佔 空體重百分比之影響(試驗一)……….……………………..33 表7腹腔注射T 3或Dopa對16日齡白肉雞雛腸道重佔 空體重百分比之影響(試驗一)……..….………… …………..34 表8腹腔注射T 3或Dopa對16日齡白肉雞雛每公斤空 體重含腸道長度影響(試驗一)………..….……....…………34 表9腹腔注射T 3或Dopa對16日齡白肉雞雛每單位腸道 長度之重量(mg/mm)之影響(試驗一)…….…..….……...35 表10飼糧添加T3或Dopa對6-15日齡白肉雞雛生 長性狀之影響(試驗一)….………………………..……..….39 表11 飼糧添加T3或Dopa對16日齡白肉雞雛臟器佔 空體重百分率的影響(試驗一)…..…..…………..………...40 表12 飼糧添加T3或Dopa對16日齡白肉雞雛腸道重 佔空體重百分率的影響(試驗一)…..…..…….…..…….….41 表13 飼糧添加T3或Dopa對16日齡白肉雞雛每公斤 空體重腸道長度之影響(試驗一)………...….…………….41 表14飼糧添加T3或Dopa對16日齡白肉雞雛腸道 每單位腸道長度之重量(mg/mm)之影響(試驗一)……..42 表15各性狀對白肉雞雛飼糧三碘甲狀腺素添加量 (X, μmol/Kg diet)之迴歸方程式(試驗二)…..….…..…44 表16飼糧添加T3或Dopa對6-12日齡白肉雞雛生 長性狀之影響(試驗二)…………………….……………….47 表17飼糧添加T3或Dopa對14日齡白肉雞雛臟器 佔空體重百分率之影響(試驗二)…….………….…………48 表18飼糧添加T3或Dopa對14日齡白肉雞雛腸道 佔空體重百分率之影響(試驗二)……………….….…...….49 表19飼糧添加T3或Dopa對14日齡白肉雞雛每公斤 空體重腸道長度之影響(試驗二).……………….…………49 表20飼糧添加T3或Dopa對14日齡白肉雞雛小腸 耗氧量之影響(試驗二)…..………………...…………….…52 表21飼糧添加T3或Dopa對14日齡白肉雞雛小腸 Na+,K+ ATPase耗氧百分率之影響(試驗二)….………..…53 表22飼糧添加T3或Dopa對14日齡白肉雞雛腸 道密度(mg/mm2)之影響(試驗二)…..….…………..…..…53 表23各性狀對白肉雞雛飼糧三碘甲狀腺素添加量 (X, μmol/Kg diet)之迴歸方程式(試驗二)…..….…..…56 表24白肉雞雛生長性狀與臟器、腸道性狀間之 相關係數(試驗二)…………..………………………………57 表25白肉雞雛小腸各段落耗氧量、Na+,K+- ATPase 耗氧百分率、組織密度之相關(試驗二)…..……….….….58 表26飼糧添加T3或Dopa對12-48日齡雞隻生長 性狀之影響(試驗二)….……………………………...….…61 表27飼糧添加T3或Dopa對50日齡雞隻臟器佔 空體重百分率之影響(試驗二)…….….……….……….….61 表28飼糧添加T3或Dopa對50日齡雞隻腸道佔 空體重百分率之影響(試驗二)…………….….…..…….…61 表29飼糧添加T3或Dopa對50日齡雞隻每公斤 空體重腸道長度之影響(試驗二)………….…….……..….62 表30飼糧添加T3或Dopa對50日齡雞隻雛小腸耗 氧量之影響(試驗二)…….…………….……….……….….63 表31飼糧添加T3或Dopa對50日齡雞隻小腸Na+ ,K+ ATPase耗氧百分率之影響(試驗二)…….………...…64 表32飼糧添加T3或Dopa對50日齡雞隻小腸密 度(mg/mm2)之影響(試驗二)……..……..………..…..….64 附 表 次 名 稱 頁次 附表1 0~3及4~7週齡白肉雞雛之試驗飼糧組成 (試驗一、二) ………………………………………………84 附表2 0~3及4~7週齡白肉雞雛之試驗飼糧成分 計算值(試驗一、二) ……………………………………..85 附表3 腹腔注射T 3或Dopa對16日齡白肉雞雛 臟器重之影響(試驗一)……………………………….…86 附表4 腹腔注射T 3或Dopa對16日齡白肉雞雛 腸道重之影響(試驗一)…………………………..…..…...86 附表5 腹腔注射T3或Dopa對16日齡白肉雞雛 腸道長度之影響(試驗一)…………………………....…...87 附表6 飼糧添加T3或Dapa對16日齡白肉雞雛 臟器佔空體重百分率的影響(試驗一)……………....…...87 附表7 飼糧添加T3或Dapa 對16日齡白肉雞雛 腸道重的影響(試驗一)…………………………………...88 附表8 飼糧添加T3或Dopa對16日齡白肉雞雛 腸道長度之影響(試驗一)…………………………....…...88 附表9 飼糧添加T3或Dopa對14日齡白肉雞雛 臟器重之影響(試驗二)…………………………..…..…...89 附表10 飼糧添加T3或Dopa對14日齡白肉雞雛 腸道重之影響(試驗二)…...………….………………....90 附表11 飼糧添加T3或Dopa對14日齡白肉雞雛 腸道長度之影響(試驗二)…………..……………...…...91 附表12 飼糧添加T3或Dopa對50日齡雞隻臟器 重之影響(試驗二)………………………………….…...91 附表13 飼糧添加T3或Dopa對50日齡雞隻腸道 重之影響(試驗二)………………………………….…...92 附表14 飼糧添加T3或Dopa對50日齡雞隻腸道 長度之影響(試驗二)…..………………………………..92zh_TW
dc.language.isoen_USzh_TW
dc.publisher畜產學系zh_TW
dc.subjectBroiler Chicksen_US
dc.subject白肉雞雛zh_TW
dc.subjectTriiodothyronineen_US
dc.subjectDopamineen_US
dc.subjectSmall INtestinal Energy Metabolismen_US
dc.subject三碘甲狀腺素zh_TW
dc.subject多巴胺zh_TW
dc.subject小腸能量代謝zh_TW
dc.title施與三碘甲狀腺素或多巴胺對白肉雞雛小腸能量代謝之影響zh_TW
dc.titleThe Effect of Administration of T3 or Dopamine on Small Intestinal Energy Metabolism in Broiler Chicksen_US
dc.typeThesis and Dissertationzh_TW
item.languageiso639-1en_US-
item.fulltextno fulltext-
item.openairecristypehttp://purl.org/coar/resource_type/c_18cf-
item.grantfulltextnone-
item.cerifentitytypePublications-
item.openairetypeThesis and Dissertation-
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