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標題: 利用繞道迷宮試驗探討地方雞種對陌生環境之適應能力
Using the detour maze to study the adaptation ability of local chicken in novel environments
作者: 陳信雄
Chen, Hsin-Hsiung
關鍵字: 繞道迷宮;detour maze;地方雞種;陌生環境;土雞;適應;行為;adaptation ability;local chicken;novel environments
出版社: 動物科學系所
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As the concept of animal welfare has been gradually rooted in people, traditional animal feeding and management methods are seen to be inappropriate and out of date. However, those chickens which are long-term selected for production traits also have adaption problems as they are again brought back to free range. Moreover, the long-term selection for the production traits also causes reductions of performance in some behaviors. For example, compared to conserved chickens, chickens selected for production may more easily feel afraid of human and not active. Therefore, local chickens, which grow more slowly, taste better, and are more adaptable to the enriched environment than the broilers, would be better candidates for raising in order to solve animal welfare problems at present.
Yet, local chickens from different origins are also found to be different in some behaviors. In order to test the performance of adaption to environment among different breeds of chickens, 6 breeds of local chickens, i.e., Hua-Tun, Hsin-Yi, Ju-Chi, Quemoy, Nagoya, and Shek-Ki, were compared. Besides, by detour maze, reminiscent test and advanced detour maze, the fear that a chicken feel and its performance when it is brought to a new environment were studied to further evaluate their potential to adapt free-ranged environment.
Detour maze is an open-field with two wire-net fences. Objects have to explore and find the food in the apparatus. The performance of their behavior would be recorded during the test. The reminiscent test is the same as the detour maze but is performed 4 weeks after the detour maze in order to test whether the chickens retrogress or not. The advanced detour maze is similar to the detour maze but with more difficulties. The test is designed to test the chickens’ spacial memory and the ability of adaption.
The result showed that among all breeds, Hsin-Yi has the best performance in area exploring ability, which, in general speaking, appears when chickens are at lower fear level. That is, chickens that perform better in this stage are considered to have less fear of environment. In terms of testing duration, it was also Hsin-Yi that spent the shortest time reaching to the assigned location, which means the breed gets acquainted with the environment faster than others. Furthermore, Hsin-Yi has shorter latency of moving, and is considered to have a lower level of fear of environment. Likewise, Hsin-Yi and Hua-Tung are also considered to have a lower level of fear of environment for they have more numbers of steps when reaching to the foods. Hsin-Yi, Ju-Chi and Shek-Ki all have the shorter latency of vocalizing and higher frequency of vocalizations. Taking previous results, latency of moving and numbers of steps into consideration, one can conclude that Hsin-Yi and Ju-Chi have lower level of fear of the environment and Shek-Ki has more motives for searching companions. In conclusion, Hsin-Yi, Hua-Tung, and Ju-Chi performed a higher ability of adaption to new environments, while Shek-Ki performed worse in the detour maze than all the other breeds, and Quemoy and Nagoya are in the middle. In spite of the differences of adaption ability among the 6 breeds, their performance changed as the frequency of trial went up.
As for the reminiscent test, when the chickens came back to the same trial again after four weeks, there were no significant differences in their fear of environments compared with the last trial. Moreover, at first the chickens lost a bit of memory for the position of the equipments they met last time, but got acquainted as their memory was recovered.
In advanced detour maze, their performance would be affected after we made a little change in the environment that the chickens have known well. What’s more, if we let the chickens not to stay in the changed environment, the environment will become much more unfamiliar to the chickens in a period of time.
其他識別: U0005-0908201222100200
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