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Effects of rice-straw biochar on the immobilization of Cr(VI) in soils
|關鍵字:||稻稈生質炭;Rice-straw biochar;六價鉻;固定;還原;陰離子;Cr(VI);immobilization;reduction;anion||出版社:||土壤環境科學系所||引用:||行政院農業委員會農糧署。2010。臺灣地區稻作種植、收穫面積及產量。 行政院環境保護署。2001。土壤污染管制標準。行政院環境保護署環署水字第0073684號令。 行政院環境保護署。2002。農地土壤重金屬調查與場址列管計畫。(EPA-90-GA13-03-90A285) 。 行政院環境保護署。2009。地下水污染管制標準。行政院環境保護署環署水字第0980003647號令。 鄒裕民、陳益榮、王明光。1998。鉻酸鹽在土壤中的吸持(二)。中國農業化學會誌。36:77–90。 Alvarez-Ayuso, E., A. Garcia-Sanchez, and X. Querol. 2007. Adsorption of Cr(VI) from synthetic solutions and electroplating wastewaters on amorphous aluminium oxide. J. Hazard Mater. 142:191–198. Ashworth, D. J., and B. J. Alloway. 2008. Influence of dissolved organic matter on the solubility of heavy metals in sewage0sludge-amended soils. Commun. Soil. Sci. Plant Anal. 39:538–550. Banks, M. K., A. P. Schwab, and C. Henderson. 2006. Leaching and reduction of chromium in soil as affected by soil organic content and plants. Chemosphere 62:255–264. Bartlett, R. J., and J. M. Kimble. 1976. Behavior of Chromium in Soils: II. Hexavalent Forms. J. 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作物殘體經由燃燒後所產生之含炭物質，具有比表面積高、不易分解及良好的陰、陽離子交換容量，若施用於土壤中將會對於土壤基本性質、重金屬的移動和有機分子傳輸等具有影響。鉻在環境中主要以三價鉻﹝Cr(III)﹞及六價鉻﹝Cr(VI)﹞的形態存在，其中Cr(VI)的毒性和移動性都高於Cr(III)。現今受鉻污染之土壤常用的整治方法為添加化學還原劑(如，硫化鐵、亞鐵離子和零價鐵)將Cr(VI)還原為Cr(III)，近年已有研究藉由添加炭化之生物性資材還原Cr(VI)，然而土壤環境中存在許多變因，舉如土壤pH、有機質、氧化物及陰陽離子等，皆會影響炭化之生物性資材還原Cr(VI)之能力，因此本研究目的為探討添加稻稈生質炭(Rice-straw biochar; RB)到土壤中對土壤固定Cr(VI)之影響。
本研究選用兩種土壤，分別為陳厝寮系土壤(Chentsuo; Ce)(台中縣大肚鄉)及萬合系土壤(Wanho; Wa)(彰化縣埤頭鄉)，並添加5%的稻稈生質炭，以固液比為50 g L-1添加稻稈生質炭的土壤與10 mg L-1Cr(VI)溶液於pH 2.0-7.0以及未調整pH的環境中進行動力學反應。等溫吸附結果顯示，添加稻稈生質炭與否的陳厝寮和萬合系土壤在未調整pH的且低濃度Cr(VI)時，稻稈生質炭所固定的Cr(VI)佔土壤總固定量較大，顯示在低濃度的Cr(VI)污染情況時，土壤對於Cr(VI)的固定能力較佳。於動力學及土壤溶液中可溶性有機碳結果顯示，隨著溶液pH增加，陳厝寮及萬合系土壤對於Cr(VI)之固定和還原量隨之下降，可溶性有機碳濃度亦有上升趨勢。當溶液pH 7.0時，Cr(VI)仍有被還原的現象發生，表示可溶性有機碳將Cr(VI)還原為Cr(III)。當pH< 3.0的反應中，添加稻稈生質炭的土壤對Cr(VI)之固定且還原有抑制的現象。土壤陰離子溶出量結果顯示，添加稻稈生質炭的陳厝寮系土壤於pH 2.0-7.0溶液環境中，Cl-在pH 2.0-3.0濃度高於pH 4.0-7.0，萬合系土壤亦有相同結果；SO42-、NO3-和PO43-的溶出量在不同pH的環境中變化則不明顯，而萬合系土壤隨著 pH的降低，溶液中PO43-相對上升。陰離子競爭對稻稈生質炭固定Cr(VI)實驗中，H2PO4-對稻稈生質炭競爭Cr(VI)的競爭能力高於Cl-、SO42-和NO3-，競爭能力依序分別為H2PO4- > NO3- ≅ SO42- > Cl-。未來於土壤添稻稈生質炭若應用於低濃度Cr(VI)污染之土壤復育，對於Cr(VI)的固定和還原量是有影響性的。
Chromium in soils exist as Cr(III) cation or Cr(VI) oxyanion forms. Cr(III) is an essential trace element for living organisms, Cr(VI) is toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic. The biochar derived from rice straw possessed of high surface area and cation exchange capacity is hard to be decomposed by organisms and plays an important role in the retention of organic and inorganic pollutants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of amendment of rice-straw biochar (RB) into soil on the immobilization of Cr(VI) by mixing 5% RB with Chentsuo (Ce) and Wanho (Wa) soils at pH 2.0-7.0. The isothermal results showed that Cr(VI) was significantly immobilized by RB of the mixtures of the biochar and soils without adjustment pH. However, the increasing pH values resulted in increasing the dissolved organic carbon and in undermining the ability in immobilization and reduction of Cr(VI) by the biochar and soil mixtures. The reduction reaction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) still had occurred at pH 7.0, supposing that the increasing dissolved organic carbon reduced Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Nevertheless, the immobilization and reduction of Cr(VI) was inhibited by RB of the mixtures under pH 3.0 due to anion competition. The dissolved chloride was increased with the deceasing pH value in both Ce and Wa mixtures. Among the nearly varied concentrations of anions (i.e. sulfate, nitrate, and phosphate) with the pH change in the Ce and Wa mixtures, the concentration of phosphate increased with decreasing pH in the Wa mixtures. Phosphate would more strongly inhibit Cr(VI) from the reduction than other anions (i.e. chloride, sulfate, and nitrate). The results showed that the amendment of RB could enhance Cr(VI) reduction in soils. However, with increaseing pH, the immobilization and reduction capacity of Cr(VI) decreased. Therefore, when rice-straw biochar is used in the remediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated soils for immobilized and redox amount of Cr(VI) is influential.
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