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An Experimental Study on Size Effects of Nano Powder on Chemical-Mechanical Polishing of Copper Film
Copper has gradually substitute aluminum in the integrated circuit (IC) fabrication process owing to its low electrical resistivity and high electron-migration resistance. Moreover, due to the increasing complexity of IC devices at multi-level metallization, the wafer must be further planarized to satisfy the requirement of the lithography process. Currently chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is the only process to achieve globe planarization. However, there is lacking of study on the size effects of polishing powders on the process. In this thesis, experiments are designed and conducted to investigate the effects of polishing powders with various diameters in nanometer scale for CMP of copper film under different polishing slurries.
Alumina Modified Colloidal Silica 100S (26nm) and 200S (40nm), and Al2O3 abrasive (90nm), are used as polishing powders in this study. Experiments showed the following results. (1) The removal rate (RR) of the film increases with diameters of the polishing powder under an additive of Citric Acid in HNO3. Surface quality becomes worse at the same time. (2) With benzotriazole (BTA) as an additive, RR of the film using Al2O3 powder is higher, but RR does not increase with the powder size in general. Surface quality becomes worse at the same time though it is not as strong as that in the slurry with additive of Citric Acid. (3) The size effect of powders on RR with additive of Citric Acid is stronger than that with BTA. (4) The mechanical wear model based on Hertz contact theory can be employed in the CMP process when Citric Acid is used as an additive in the slurry.
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