Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/27139
標題: 味素廢液對小白菜養分供應特性之研究
Studies on the use of glutamate waste as fertilizer on growing Pak-choi
作者: 潘俊杰
Pan, Chun-Chieh
關鍵字: glutamate waste;味素廢液;nitrogen transformation;fertigation;Pak choi;temperature;water content;application rate;soil pH;氮轉化;灌肥;小白菜;溫度;水分含量;施用量;土壤pH
出版社: 土壤環境科學系
摘要: 
味素廢液乃味素製造過程中產生之發酵廢棄物,含有大量無機鹽類及有機化合物,故可應用其營養成分。本研究目的將探討味素廢液於土壤中氮之變化及對小白菜生長之影響。試驗一於土壤中加入五種味素廢液濃度,控制三種土壤水分及三種溫度,于孵育箱中,探討對味素廢液中氮在土壤中轉變的影響。試驗二則延續試驗一,選用三種不同性質土壤做六種處理,加入三種濃度之濃縮味素廢液,控制三種土壤水分於25℃下孵育,更進一步探討對味素廢液中氮在不同土壤環境中轉變的影響。試驗三為盆栽試驗,以相同用量之氮、磷、鉀肥,探討在不同土壤性質下,味素廢液對小白菜生長之影響,並由各養分之變化,做為味素廢液合理施肥之建議。
由二孵育試驗結果,無機態氮在各濃度用量下3天便能迅速釋放,但過高的用量(1﹪、2﹪)亦造成有效性氮相當大的損失,且硝化作用減緩。溫度在15℃時微生物活動較不旺盛,25℃及35℃下礦化速率及硝化作用較強。水分處理上,飽和水分含量及浸水含量易造成有效性氮的損失,且少有硝酸態氮的累積,而15﹪水分含量、60﹪田間容水量及田間容水量下由於土壤通氣性較高,硝化作用亦較強。而在強酸性土壤(北溝土壤)硝化作用甚低,可藉由石灰添加調整pH至鹼性狀況下硝化作用則明顯增強,同時在pH較高之土壤(秀水土壤、田尾土壤)亦有明顯之礦化作用及硝化作用發生,顯示土壤pH對其重要影響。
由盆栽試驗結果,味素廢液的施用可有效促進小白菜的生長。北溝土壤pH過低,需施用石灰調整pH使小白菜產量及養分吸收量提高,秀水土壤及田尾土壤之味素廢液處理均高於化學肥料處理,尤其灌肥(fertigation)處理產量及養分吸收量最高,同時養分殘留量亦低於化學肥料處理。由土壤pH及各養分含量的測定,予以適量調整施用,則可避免造成土壤酸化及其他養分累積問題。

The glutamate waste, produced in glutamate processing, contains inorganic salt and organic compound which can be applied as plant nutrition. The purpose of this research was to investigate the change of glutamate waste compounds in the soils and its effect on the growth of Pak-chio. The experiment 1, carried out in incubator, was to study the effects of different application rates of glutamate waste (0%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 1%, 2%, w/w) , temperatures (15℃, 25℃, 35℃) and water contents (15% water contents, 100% F.C., submerged ) on change of nitrogen forms of glutamate waste in soil during 28 days of incubation. The experiment 2 study the effects of application rate of concentrated glutamate waste (0 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg) and water contents (60% F.C., 100% F.C., saturated water contents ) on changes of nitrogen forms of glutamate waste in three different soils at 25℃ during 21 days of incubation. The experiment 3 was to test the effect of glutamate waste on the growth of Pak-chio in a greenhouse. According to the results, suggestions for proper application of glutamate waste for Pak-chio will be made.
Results of two incubation experiments, showing that inorganic nitrogen could have been released quickly at each application rate within three days, but high application rate (1%, 2%) can make very heavy loss of available nitrogen and slow down the nitrification. At 15℃, the microbial activity is low. However, at 25℃ and 35℃, the mineralization and the nitrification rates were relatively higher. When soils were saturated with water or submerged available nitrogen were easy to loss and have a little accumulation of NO3-N. At 15% water content, 60% F.C. and 100% F.C. higher nitrification rates were found because of the higher aeration in the soil. The acidic soil (Pei Kou soil) has lower nitrification. Therefore, increasing pH obviously enhances the nitrification by liming treatment. Meanwhile, high pH soils (Shiow Shui soil and Tie Wei soil), had higher mineralization and nitrification rates.
The pot experiment showed that the glutamate waste promoted Pak-hio growth. Increasing pH of Pei Kou soil, by liming increased yield of Pak-chio and nutrient uptake. The yields on Shiow Shui soil and Tie Wei soil was higher in glutamate waste treatment than the chemical fertilizer treatment; especially the fertigation treatment had highest yield and nutrient uptake. Meanwhile, the residual nutrients were lower in glutamate waste treatment than the chemical fertilizer treatment. By measuring soil pH and the amount of each nutrients and adjusting application rate appropriately, the problem of soil acidification and nutrient accumulation could be avoided.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/27139
Appears in Collections:土壤環境科學系

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