Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/27145
標題: 臺灣毛豬產銷合作社向前整合經濟誘因之研究
Study on Economic Incentives for Hogs Cooperatives Forward Integration into Processing Activities in Taiwan
作者: 鄭秋桂
Cheng , Chiu-Kuei
關鍵字: vertical integration;垂直整合;“Taiwan valuable hogs”;economic incentive;hogs cooperatives;marketing firms;transaction cost theory;market power;「台灣珍豬」;經濟誘因;毛豬產銷合作社;運銷商;交易成本理論;市場力量
出版社: 農業經濟學系
摘要: 
摘要
垂直整合為策略聯盟的一種方式,也為現階段之政府與畜牧相關產業團體認為有效增加臺灣畜產業競爭力,減少加入WTO後對畜產業衝擊的方法。美國毛豬產業的垂直整合已逐漸在發展。臺灣毛豬產業的垂直整合則尚在萌芽階段,自1998年起,以合作社為經營主體所推行的「台灣珍豬」品牌可為代表。合作社的組織行為不同於一般運銷商,本研究探討毛豬運銷商及以損益平衡為經營目標的合作社或以追求社員與合作社的聯合利潤最大的經營目標之合作社,向前整合加工廠的經濟誘因。另外,就相關文獻所歸納的影響垂直整合的誘因中,分析規模經濟與市場力量等因素之影響。
由於毛豬產業之垂直階段多層,要分析所有階段間的垂直整合關係有資料上及研究方法上的限制。因此,本研究選擇毛豬運銷階段向前整合加工廠為分析的對象。研究方法則應用交易成本理論及垂直整合理念,依據Royer and Bhuyan(1994)的合作組織向前整合之經濟分析模型及廠商理論為之。研究方法中之模型的推導與模擬分析研究上所需之資料,主要包括三大部分。加工廠方面,以股票上市的立大、臺芳、源益及聯成等4家公司之公開說明書的資料,推估加工廠的生產函數及參數。消費者方面,以農業年報之次級資料推估消費者對豬肉的消費函數。而各合作社之供給函數推估,則以農業年報及批發市場年報的次級資料為之。
為了分析運銷商與合作社的規模不同及所處的市場結構不同下,向前整合加工廠之經濟誘因,本研究將加工廠分3種規模,運銷商與合作社各分為4種規模,再交叉成36種規模組合作分析。這有利於整合型態之選擇,對於「台灣珍豬」之推行有其經濟與政策上的涵義。茲將本研究結論及政策上的涵義分述如下:
1.相同規模間不同組織行為之整合誘因:在沒有整合的成本下,毛豬產銷合作社有向前整合加工廠的經濟誘因,而且除了少數消極型合作社外,大致而言,積極型合作社的整合誘因更大於消極型合作社及運銷商的整合誘因。
2.不同市場力量之整合誘因:(1)若運銷商或合作社有市場力量,運銷階段與加工階段的交易成本降低及運用市場力量的結果,形成了向前整合的誘因。(2)若加工廠有市場力量,大規模的運銷商或消極型、積極型合作社與大規模的加工廠間仍有大量的交易成本,形成整合的誘因;但對於小規模的消極型合作社而言,規模太小可能影響整合誘因,因此,並不適合向前整合中、小型加工廠。
3.同一組織行為下不同規模之整合誘因:(1)若運銷商或合作社有市場力量,則運銷商或合作社皆有誘因整合加工廠,但誘因偏好則喜歡與大規模加工廠整合。(2)若加工廠有市場力量,則規模太小的消極型合作社並不適合整合中小規模的加工廠;積極型合作社則不盡然偏好與大規模加工廠整合;運銷商之整合偏好不因規模不同而異。
依據以上之結論,目前「台灣珍豬」品牌以合作社為推行主體應有其政策意義。本研究認為政府在推行垂直整合政策時,除了加強合作社的市場力量外,更應考慮往大規模經營。市場力量的形成可以合作社與合作社之間的合作(社間合作)為主,其他型態的策略聯盟方式為輔。其中,積極型的合作社比消極型的合作社之潛力更大。原因在於積極型的合作社比消極型的合作社更能控制社員的毛豬數量,讓社員有一定的利潤,不因社員無限制的供應毛豬而削減其他社員的利潤。這在政策的實施上,有利組織型態的選擇。因此,法令規章的修訂亦有其重要性。
以上之結論與推衍的政策涵義,乃在分析工具有限及資料搜集不易下,用若干假設簡化分析內容後所得的結果,這些研究的限制包括:(1)由於交易成本不易衡量,本研究並沒有考慮整合可能造成的交易成本,因此可能高估整合誘因。(2)本研究只分析運銷商向前整合加工廠的階段。(3)臺灣並沒有類似於積極型合作社的組織型態,毛豬運銷商也沒有形成公司組織,研究所得只是模擬結果。(4)運銷階段廠商與加工廠間的市場力量,本研究並沒有先作檢定驗證,而是以假設的情況作分析。以上之研究限制,未來在時間充分及廠商能配合提供資料的情況下,尚可作後續研究。

Abstract
Vertical integration is one form of strategic alliance. It is also thought to be a method to promote competitiveness and to reduce the impact of entering the World Trade Organization for livestock industries in Taiwan. Vertical integration of hogs industries have been developed for a while in the United State of America, but it is just burgeoning in Taiwan. The brand of “Taiwan valuable hogs” is an example. Hogs cooperatives have promoted “Taiwan valuable hogs” since 1998. But the economic incentives for the hogs cooperatives to form forward integration into processing activities are not the same as marketing firms or business enterprises. The purpose of this study are to understand and compare economic incentives of hogs cooperatives and marketing firms. In addition, the issues on the market power and scale differences and their influence on forward integration were examined.
Due to the restrictions of data availability and method, the study focused on hogs marketing firms and cooperatives at the marketing and processing stage. Cooperatives include passive and active ones. Theoretical methods that were used include transaction cost theory, vertical integration concept, economic analysis model of cooperatives organization and firm theory of Jeffrey S. Royer and Sanjib Bhuyan. Data came from the following three sources , the first part is the processing firms data from the Stock Annual, the second part is the pork consumption data from the Taiwan Agricultural Yearbook, and the third part is the hogs production data from the Wholesale Market Yearbook.
To analyze market power, and the influence different of scale on forward integration of firms, I further divide processors to three scale groups and the marketing firms and cooperatives to four scale groups each, which became thirty six combinations. This would be helpful to chose good integration forms to promote the “Taiwan valuable hogs”. The study results are as following:
1. If there is no cost of integration, hogs cooperatives have economic incentives for forward integration to processors. Generally, economic incentives of active cooperatives are larger than passive cooperatives.
2. If hogs marketing firms or cooperatives have market power, they have economic incentives for forward integration into processors. If processors have market power, large-scale hogs marketing firms or cooperatives have a larger economic incentive for forward integration into processors than the small-scale ones.
3. If hogs marketing firms or cooperatives have market power, they prefer to have the forward integration into large-scale processors. If processors have the market power, small-scale passive cooperatives do not prefer forward integration into small- scale processors. Some of the active cooperatives do not prefer integrate into large-scale processors. There is no difference in scale preference for the hogs marketing firms.
The policy implications are that government could enhance market power and increase the scale of cooperatives. The method includes cooperation of cooperatives and some kinds of strategic alliance. For the promotion of “Taiwan valuable hogs”, active cooperatives have higher potential than passive ones, because active cooperatives have capacity to control hogs production quantity. So law and regulation of cooperatives might need some modification to help the active cooperatives.
Due to limit on data availability and methods, the result of this study have some restrictions. First, it was not easy to estimate the transaction cost of forward integration, therefore the economic incentives might be over estimated. Second, only the marketing and processing stage is included in the study. Third, there were no hogs marketing firms and active cooperatives in Taiwan, the study results were based on the simulation. Fourth, the market power was assumed, it was not rigorously tested. For the future studies, it would be more desirable to have enough time to collect the relevant data, and to gain the full support from the firms to provide adequate information.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/27145
Appears in Collections:應用經濟學系

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