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study and experimental investigation of mechanical wear mechanisms for the chemical planarization of silicon wafer
化學機械平坦化(CMP)技術為進入深次微米半導體元件製程中不可或缺的關鍵技術之一，然而對這種結合化學反應與機械研磨的製程之瞭解依然有限，因此使得CMP相關製程調整與控制的發展倍加艱辛，本研究主要以機械作用的觀點出發，探討在晶片表面-磨漿-拋光墊之間的機械磨耗機制包括磨粒磨耗機制(abrasive-based wear mechanism)與液動磨耗機制(fluid-based wear mechanism)，並透過移除率之數學模式分析來討論影響製程之主要參數。另外，由於CMP製程之變數甚多，因此吾人利用田口方法來進行實驗設計，以最少實驗，尋求機械磨耗機制之最佳化加工條件。
Chemical-mechanical planarization or polishing (CMP) is an emerging process used in surface planarization and polishing for silicon wafer with multilevel interconnections. The process combines the chemical reaction between slurry and wafer surface and the mechanical abrasion for material removal. Process model of CMP, however, is not well understood yet as the microscopic chemical and mechanical processes and the interaction between them are still unclear. This paper discusses the wear mechanism of the CMP process form mechanical aspect, including abrasive-based and flow-based wear mechanism and The dominant parameters on the CMP process by these mathematical models. As the CMP process is affected by many parameters, experiments are designed and conducted by the Taguchi method in order to find optimal parameters with minimum experiments.
The material removal rate (RR) and non-uniformity(NU) from experiments show consistency with the two wear mechanism in a certain range. RR increase as polishing pressure and polishing velocity increases while NU becomes worse as polishing velocity increases. It also shows RR at the edge of the wafer is higher than that at the center without back pressure. The NU, therefore, can be improved by suitable back pressure. Experimental result also shows consistency with theoretical analysis of pressure distribution. By the analysis of signal noise to ratio and the analysis of variable, It show that The RR and the NU are dominated by the polishing pressure, polishing velocity and the abrasive content of slurry. The RR increases as these factors increases but the NU becomes worse at the same time.
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