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Higher Agriculture Education in Nepal and its Relevancy to Nepalese farmers
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農業教育在農業工作中扮演了主要的提供農業技術人才來源的角色。在尼泊爾，隸屬於特里布文大學(Tribhuvan University)的「農業及動物科學學院」 (Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, IAAS)是唯一的一所以提供農業教育為主的公立機構。從「輸入(學生入學)、加工(教育)、產出(畢業)」(IPO)的架構來考量，本研究調查了現階段的農業高等教育(HAE)以及HAE對於尼泊爾農夫的關聯性。數據是來自「半結構性訪問」的調查結果，針對群體討論、文獻回顧及相關資料作探討。結論顯示在提供高質量的農業教育方面尼泊爾面臨的問題包含了政策缺乏連貫性、公共建設及設施配備不足、使用尼泊爾語撰寫與出版的文獻資料缺乏，以及農業教育人員的出走與傳統技能的流失。無獨有偶，農業教育機構與研究單位、推廣單位間缺乏良好的合作溝通也都導致了農業教育學院的侷限。這樣的情況則會因為能適用於當地的相關課程不足、缺乏以大眾為主的教學方法、本國語言的課程教材太少，以及多數的學生都來自於都會區等問題而更為惡化。因此，要使農業高等教育更為積極有效，建立與國家農業生產需求相關及符合就業需要的教育方案及課程是可行的方式。研究結果建議應該要強化尼泊爾的農業高等教育以及增加農業高等教育在當地的適性發展。
Agriculture education is the principal source of skilled human resources for agriculture sector. In Nepal, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS) under Tribhuvan University is currently the only one leading public institute providing higher agriculture education. Considering an input-process-output (IPO) framework, this study examined the present status of higher agriculture education (HAE) and analyzed its relevancy to Nepalese farmers. The data were collected by using semi-structured interview, focus group discussion and reviewing the reports and related documents. The findings reveal that in providing quality education, HAE of Nepal was confronted with problems like lack of coherent policy, inadequate infrastructures and facilities, low faculty- student ratio, insufficient financing, lack of publications and references materials in national language, exodus of teaching staff and over relying on traditional teaching pedagogy. Similarly, due to improper coordination and communication among agriculture education institutions, research institutions, and extension institutions; imparting relevant education through higher agriculture education institutions (HAEIs) has been limited. This situation was further aggravated by inadequate local content in curriculum, lack of community based program in teaching methods, low number of nationally related teaching materials and publications, and high enrolment of student only from the urban areas. Thus, to make higher agriculture education more responsive and relevant, development and implementation of teaching programs and curriculum that are relevant to production needs and employment demands of agriculture sector of the country is required. Recommendations are given for strengthening higher agriculture education and increase its relevancy to Nepalese agriculture development.
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