Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/27305
標題: 台灣中部地區冬季結球萵苣肥培管理研究
Studies on the fertilization management of head lettuce(Lactuca sativa var. capitata L.)in winter season in the central part of Taiwain.
作者: 李冠德
Lee, Kuan-Te
關鍵字: head lettuce;結球萵苣;Fertilizer management;nitrogen movement;nitrification;肥培管理;養分移動;硝化作用;塑膠覆蓋
出版社: 土壤環境科學系
摘要: 
現今全球食用生食素材結球萵苣已相當普遍主要產區是在美國產及是在每年十一月至隔年四月,台灣中部在十月至翌年四月期間因氣候與土壤條件佳,具有生產高品質結球萵苣之條。但現今並無適當的肥培管理方式,因此需要建立明確且合理的施肥模式。
在三個田間試驗中,首先主要了解適合具有市場價值結球萵苣養分需求量,而兩室內試驗主要了解在浸水土壤管柱中氮的轉換及移動。
在2003年的冬季,雲林試驗區中設計四個氮肥料變級(120(TN120)、170(TN170)、220(TN220)、270(TN270) kg/ha)處理,發現結球萵苣植體不論乾重或是鮮重及氮與磷在生長期中持續累積上升,其鮮重可達1.5公斤/株,在植後43天可達市場價值。植體氮、磷及鉀吸收量最高,分別為1.58、0.20及1.78克/株,做為推薦肥料用量的基準。第二部份在台中縣試驗田2004年冬天進行,採逢機完全區集設計,設計八種處理相同的施用量N-P2O-K2O(160-85-166)並在覆蓋情況下,比較不同施肥方式對產量的影響,施用三種肥料,純有機肥(3.5-2-2)、有機複合肥料(10-4-7)、化學肥料(16-8-16),三種施肥方式:(1)植前將肥料一次施入土中;(2)植前肥料條施;(3)生長期中分三次施肥;化學肥料是分三次施入土中。結果顯示在覆蓋塑膠膜中,一次施肥可以提供充足養分而不用分次施肥。有機肥條施可達最大產量;有機複合肥料混合施可達最大產量。
培育試驗結果顯示,將不同型態氮肥放置在土壤管柱中底部0~2公分處並將管柱浸入水中0~2公分處,不同層的土壤中氮濃度顯示
不同型態氮的移動情形銨態氮大於尿素態氮大於硝酸態氮
可能是施用氮在浸水土壤中造成土壤中氮的逸失而尿素水解作用可能在浸水土壤中受到抑制,總結在台灣中部地區種植結球萵苣具有國內及國際價值

The head lettuce is used for food very command in the whole world now,and the major production area is U.S.A. April to November to abound with one. Because climate and soil condition are good from October to April of next year in the middle part of Taiwan, it is produced high quality haed lettuce , it is stagger season to produce with U.S.A. to have, have great potentiality for export. But there is no correctly and suitable fertilizer management for Taiwain now, head lettuce quality. It is need to set up the clear and rational way of applications.
In the studt, the first part of experiment was master to the field without plastic mulch, used four level nitrogen (120 (TN120 ) , 170 (TN170 ) , 220 (TN220 ) , 270 (TN270 ) kg/ha ) to know the effects of the difference stage of head lettuce growth in Yun Lin. The nitrogen and phosphorus concentration of plant was higher in the earlier stage. The head lettuce biomass accumulation of earlier stage was slower then the later stage and the nitrogen and phosphate concentration changed lower with the growth stage getting longer. The four treatment production wae 1520 g/plant , 1480 g/plant, 1550 g/plant, 1710 g/plant respectively, and there was no effects of the production of the different fertilizer level. Used the basic of highest uptake of nitrogen treatment(TN220) nitrogen , phosphorus and potassium was 1.58 , 0.20 and 1.78 g/plant respectively for calculating the suitable fertilizer application. The second part experimental was in Taichung, adopt complete random design used the same amount of applications N-P2O-K2O (160-85-166) under plastic mulch field to compared the different to application. Used three kinds of fertilizer , the organic fertilizer(3.5-2-2 ) , organic compound fertilizer (10-4-7 ), chemical fertilizer (16-8-16 ), designed eight kinds of treatment
: (1) organic fertilizer mixed and construct (TOM ); (2) organic fertilizer band(TOB ); (3)The organic fertilizer used difference time(TOS); (4)
organic compound fertilizer mixed(TCM); (5)Organic complex fertilizer band(TCB ); (6)organic complex fertilizer used in difference time(TCS); (7)The chemical liquid fertilizer (TLS ); (8)no application fertilizer(TBK)
; the treatment organic banded could be reached the largest production; the organic complex fertilizer mixed could be reached the largest production.
The result of the incubation experimental was designed the low (100mg N/kg) and high (200mg/kg) nitrogen amount with the urea nitrogen source. After the urea was hydrolysised, in the treatment of low nitrogen amount, different soil got different nitrification rate the Siluo soil on the fourth day and the the Huwei soil on the ninth day had highest mineral nitrogen. In the treatment of high nitrogen the Siluo soil on the ninth day and the Huwei soil on the 14th day had highest mineral nitrogen . It showed that different nitrification rate but the rate could be offer enough on the growth of head lettuce. And the different amount of nitrogen of soil would be changed the nitrification rate.
In addition, the result of the experimental of column showed that during the experimental time the 5th day , 10th days and 15th days, there was no nitrogen moved upon the soil column surface, and the treatment added nitrate nitrogen and urea showed that there was nitrate nitrogen moved upon to the soil column surface; from the result that application in the Irrigation canals and ditches would take placed on the denitrification, when it got irrigation water. And nitrate nitrogen and urea fertilizer could lengthen this reaction time of taking place, but it would be take place . It means the application way is not suitable fertilizer management for growth the head lettuce in Taiwan.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/27305
Appears in Collections:土壤環境科學系

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