Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/27371
標題: 堆肥施用對強酸性土壤氮和磷礦化作用的影響與評估
The influence and evalution of strongly acid soil with composts amended for nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization.
作者: 李俊儀
Lee, Jiunn-Yi
關鍵字: strongly acid soil;強酸性土壤;organic fertilizer;nitrogen and phosphorus;mineralization;the mineralization potential;有機質肥料;氮與磷;礦化作用;礦化潛能
出版社: 土壤學系
摘要: 
摘 要
有機質肥料的施用為增進強酸性土壤生產力的對策之一,唯有機質肥料的
施用量大都以作物對氮的需求及氮在土壤中的礦化速率來估算,而鮮少顧
及有機磷在土壤中的礦化速率。基於強酸性土壤對磷具有強烈的固定能力
,因而將影響有機質肥料施用於土壤中磷的有效性 及其礦化作用。因此
,若追求能兼顧氮和磷適宜供應的有機質肥料管理,則需對不同組成的有
機質肥料在施用於強酸性土壤後,所造成氮和磷在土壤中有效性的改變及
其礦化和生物固定化作用的消長特性,予以評估,以尋求在改良強酸性土
壤生產力目的下的有機質肥料管理 指針。本試驗的目的在於瞭解豬糞堆
肥和金針菇太空包兩種堆肥施用於風化程度不同的強酸
性土壤後,對土壤氮和磷有效性及氮和磷礦化潛能及礦化速率的影響及其
評估。 本試驗選取大肚山及關西兩種強酸性土壤,依土壤之磷固定能
力的強弱,分別添加不同用量的豬糞及金針菇太空包堆肥,於不同培育期
中進行測定,以探討兩種堆肥的施用對土壤氮和磷有效性及礦化潛能的影
響,並評估一次式及複合一次式在估算氮礦化潛能與礦化速率的適宜性。
實驗結果顯示,金針菇太空包堆肥及豬糞堆肥添加均能增加土壤中氮和磷
的有效性,於各培育期中,施用豬糞堆肥處理的全氮含量與礦化氮累積量
及累積礦化百分率均較施用金針菇太空包堆肥者高。大肚山與關西土壤在
添加兩種堆肥後,若利用一次式來估算,其所得之氮礦化潛能呈現低估的
現象,而氮礦化速率則呈高估的趨勢。而複合一次式在評估氮礦化潛能上
較一次式合理且適宜。由磷有效性指標隨時間變化的趨勢可知,供試堆肥
的添加均會增進土壤磷的有效性,不論是土壤溶液磷,碳酸氫鈉磷,Bray
- 1 磷的增進效果均以施用豬糞堆肥者優於金針菇太空包堆肥者,但其增
進的程度則會因土壤磷固定能力的強弱而異。利用 KH2PO4 及 Inositol
hexaphosphate ( IHP )分別來模擬豬糞堆肥所含無機磷及有機磷的量,
並由各培育期中 KH2PO4 和 IHP 被土壤固定的百分率來修正各培育期之
溶液磷及有機磷濃度之測值,來評估豬糞堆肥施用於土壤中之磷礦化潛能
。雖然仍有未臻完善之處,唯實驗結果顯示,土壤對有機磷和無機磷之固
定作用及固定量,確實會造成礦化所釋出無機磷濃度的低估。同時,有機
質肥料添加於強酸性土壤後,氮和磷的礦化特性及礦化速率確實不同,為
能正確的估算有機質肥料的施用量,宜兼顧氮和磷的礦化特性,以尋求在
強酸性土壤之和諧有機質肥料的管理方式。

Abstract
The application of organic fertilizers is one of the strategies
for promoting the productivity of strongly acid soils. The
amount of organic fertilizers applied were mostly estimated
according to the nitrogen requirement of plants and the
mineralization rate of nitrogen ( N ) in soils, and without
considering the mineralization rate of phosphorus ( P ) in
soils. The availabilities and the mineralization of P in acid
soils after organic fertilizers addition would be significantly
reduced due to the strongP fixing capacities of the soils.
Therefore, it is necessary to determine the changes of N and P
availabilities and the characteristics of mineralization-
immobilization in strongly acid soils with addition of different
organic fertilizers in order to develop a suitable management of
organic fertilizers. The objectives of this research were to
study the effects of swine or mushroom waste composts addition
on the availabilities of N and P, and the minealization
potential of N and P in the soils with different weathering
degree.
Two strongly acid soils ( Da-Du Shan and Kuan-Si soil ) were
selected in this study, and different rate of swine or
mushroom waste composts wereadded based on the capacity of P
fixation of the soil. The effects of the composts addition on
the availability and the mineralization potential ofN and P in
the soils were investigated at different incubation time. In
addition, the rate and the potential of N mineralization were
evaluated with first-order and two first-order models. Results
showed that the availabilities of N and P in soils increased
with addition of swine or mushroom waste compost.In addition,
the total nitrogen, accumulated mineralized nitrogen and
accumulated percentage of mineralization all were higher in the
soils amended with swine compost than those with mushroom waste
compost. The potential of mineralization of Da-Du Shan and Kuan-
Si soils after addition of two composts was underestimated,
while the rate of mineralization was overestimated by using
first-order model. Whereas, the two first-order was found to be
more suitablein estimating the mineralization potential of N.
Results indicated that both swine and mushroom waste composts
couldincrease the P availabilities of the soils based on the
change of P availability index with time, and the effect was
more significant for swine compost than for mushroom waste
compost, however, the effect was determined by the P fixation
capacity of the soils. The modified values of solution P and
organic P, calculated with their fixing percentage at different
incubation time, were to estimate the mineralization potential
of P after composts addition. Result showed that the
concentration of mineralized P actually was underestimated due
to the fixation of inorganic and organic P by the soils. In
addition, the characteristics and the rate of P and N
mineralization of acid soils with adding organic fertilizers
were found to be different. It is concluded that both the
mineralization characteristics of N and P should be considered
to estimate the amount of organic fertilizers addition and the
suitable management of fertilization in s trongly acid soils.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/27371
Appears in Collections:土壤環境科學系

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