Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/2739
標題: 機車排氣檢測對污染改善之影響
The Effects of Motors Exhaust Gas Measurement for Pollution Improvement
作者: 杜啟綸
Du, Chi-Luen
關鍵字: Exhaust Emission;排氣污染;Cold-start;Air Fuel Ratio;Emission Factors;冷車起動;空燃比;排放係數
出版社: 機械工程學系
摘要: 
機車排氣定期檢驗制度實施以後,對機車排氣污染改善良多。然而在檢測過程中常會遇到一個問題:由於目前法規標準為熱車起動,但一般在進行機車檢測時,因機車為冷車起動,引擎尚未暖車便被攔檢,以致檢測無法達標準,而造成檢測上的困擾。另外,檢測數據的正確與否,可藉由排氣中的成份來推算空氣與燃油比例(空燃比,A/F)的合理範圍來作判斷,在計算空燃比的過程中,由於計算式本身存有一些假設在,故會有所誤差。故本文除了探討冷車起動對污染量測之影響外,也將以實際排氣量測數據來探討計算空燃比的誤差範圍。
本文的最後一部份,將以MOBILE5程式對影響機車排放係數重要的參數作深入的探討,主要針對可由定檢站數據整理出的里程分佈、車齡分佈及劣化率分佈來作評估,並將比較不同的分佈型態對計算排放係數的影響。
有關冷車起動對污染量測的影響方面,本文進行冷車起動惰轉及行車型態測試比較。結果發現機車冷起動後在惰轉下運轉,約需10分鐘後引擎才可到達穩定的狀態,在到達穩定的狀態前,CO與HC的排放濃度會高出穩定值甚多。而機車冷起動後若以行車型態行駛,四行程引擎約需2-3分鐘,二行程引擎約需7-8分鐘,HC與CO排放才會到達穩定值。
探討空燃比計算可能誤差,共進行了323輛次機車的排氣數據分析比較,發現不考慮O2濃度所造成的空燃比誤差最嚴重,其次為使用二次空氣系統,第三為HC的量測方法,再者為使用冷卻系統,至於氫碳比的設定值,排氣中HC的平均分子式,不同儀器的影響,及NOx濃度的影響都不大。
以MOBILE5計算排放係數方面,里程分佈以直線分佈對計算THC與CO排放係數值最大,二次曲線分佈次之,指數分佈最小,NOx的部分則無影響;車齡分佈影響較小,但與新車與老舊車輛數的比率有關,會反映在THC與CO的排放係數上,NOx的排放係數亦不會有任何的影響 。劣化率分佈以本文以新車審驗值所得結果計算之排放係數最高,其他分佈型態則不明顯,但仍與各年份劣化率分佈值有關。

After motors multiple I/M program, motors emission had been improved. However, most obviously problem occurred in the procedure of operating. Taiwan's test procedure is hot-start, but most of motors checked are cold-start. The engine is not warm up, motors emission is very serious. It caused some trouble. Otherwise, we could determine sampling-data corrected by using components of exhaust gas to compute air and fuel ratio (A/F). But there are some errors in that. So we must research these errors. So our study not only researches the emission measurement effects of cold-start engine, also discuss the A/F error range with real exhaust emission.
In the final part of study, this paper will discuss detail of important parameters by using MOBILE5 to model motors emission factor. It mainly is annual mileage accumulation rates distribution, registration distribution by age and deterioration rates that can be got from I/M program. This paper will evaluate the effect of these three parameters. And it will compare the emission factors results of different three parameters.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/2739
Appears in Collections:機械工程學系所

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