Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/27391
標題: 保育森林生態系之經濟價值評估-以八仙山森林生態系經營試驗區為例
Economic Values of Conserving Forest Ecosystem in Taiwan -A Study of Mount. Ba-Xian
作者: 張偉祐
chang, wei-yew
關鍵字: forest ecosystem;森林生態系;economic values;valuation;contingent valuation method;travel cost method;biodiversity;conservation;Mount Ba-Xian;經濟價值;評估;條件評估法;旅行成本法;生物多樣性;保育;八仙山
出版社: 農業經濟學系
摘要: 
本研究對於森林生態系經濟價值之評估乃先將森林生態系之經濟價值區分為對人類之價值及對生態之價值。對人類之價值包括使用價值及非使用價值,而使用價值可再將其區分為直接使用價值及間接使用價值。直接使用價值包括:生物資源商業價值(如:林產物價值及製藥價值)及生態旅遊等價值;間接使用價值則包括:環境服務、倫理及美學及科學研究等價值。而在非使用價值上則有選擇、遺贈、存在等保育價值。另在對生態之價值上,則包括光合作用、氣候調節、保持水循環及生態系服務等價值。而在評估方法的選取上,本研究以市場價格法推估八仙山森林生態系之林產物價值及製藥價值;旅行成本法(Travel Cost Method)推估生態旅遊價值;環境服務、美學、科學研究、保育及生態服務等價值則以條件評估法 (Contingent Valuation Method)推估之。
關於八仙山森林生態系經濟價值之實證推估結果方面,首先在生物資源商業價值上,不同的折現率將顯著地影響推估結果,森林林產物價值將介於109,750,141~132,646,370元,製藥價值則介於70,227,678~33,862,433,852元間。生態旅遊價值上,八仙山森林遊樂區之遊憩效益為每人每年395.76元。而在條件評估法推估結果方面,本研究係將回收問卷之樣本區分為去過及未去過八仙山森林生態系經營試驗區,再透過加權平均方式求得全部受訪樣本之平均願付金額。其中環境服務價值每人每年為2,670.95元、美學價值為793.99元、科學研究價值為2,084.79元、保育價值為5,632.43元及生態服務價值為3,426.73元。
在八仙山森林生態系永續經營下總經濟價值推估結果方面,本研究分別以1%折現率以及中央銀行重貼現率(4.52%)、銀行業牌告一年期定期存款利率(5.06%)、十年級中央政府公債次級市場利率(5.80%)並扣除當年度物價年增率(0.2%)後推估之。當折現率為1%下總價值為12,087,010.34~23,916,170.33百萬元(平均每公頃為3,888.70~7,694.44百萬元)、4.32%折現率下總價值為2,790,392.67~5,528,604.67百萬元(平均每公頃為897.74~1,778.69百萬元);4.86%折現率下之總價值為2,480,235.34~4,914,198.34百萬元(平均每公頃為797.95~1,581.02百萬元)而5.60%折現率下之總價值則為2,152,417.14~4,264,748.14百萬元(平均每公頃為692.49~1,372.08元)。
透過推估出之總經濟價值則可進一步得到八仙山森林生態系各類經濟價值所占之比重,其中保育價值占最大比例(38%);其次為生態服務價值(23%);再者為環境服務價值(18%);科學研究價值(14%);美學價值(5%);生態旅遊價值(2%);製藥價值(0.3%)及林產物價值(0.01%)。故建議政府在對八仙山森林生態系經營試驗區訂定永續利用經營決策時應以「自然生態保育計畫」為優先,其次為「水土保持計畫」及「森林保護計畫」,再者為「森林遊樂計畫」;最後則為「林木培育及更新計畫」。

This research attempts to evaluate the total economic values of a typical forest ecosystem in Taiwan. The total economic value includes direct use value, indirect use value, nonuse value and ecosystem service value. Direct use value includes revenues from timber and non-timber forest products (the pharmaceutical value of yew is presented here) and the recreational benefit of forest ecotourism. Aesthetic value, scientific research value and values related to environmental services are considered in this research as indirect use values. Option value, bequest value and existence value which related to the nonuse value are contained in the conservation value. In addition, ecological functions, such as photosynthesis, climate regulation, carbon sequestration and regulation of water shed, are incorporated in ecosystem service value.
Values of timber and pharmaceutical products are calculated based on market prices. Among the non-market values, value of forestry ecotourism is valued by travel cost method (TCM), whilst values of environmental services, aesthetic, scientific research, conservation and ecosystem services are estimated by contingent valuation method (CVM).
Major results in this study are summarized as follows:
1. The present values of timber and medical plant range from NTD 109.75 million to 132.65 million and NTD 70.23 mill to 33.86 mill, depending on the discounting rates. In the case of ecotourism, based on travel cost method and truncated Poisson estimation, the mean individual consumer surplus is NTD 395.76 annually. In the analysis of contingent valuation method, Cameron's expenditure difference model is applied in estimating the non-market values. The mean annual willingness to pays(WTP) per person, estimated by the Probit model, are as follows: NTD 2,670 for environmental service value, NTD 794 for aesthetic value, NTD 2,085 for scientific research value, NTD 5,632 for conservation value and NTD 3,427 for ecosystem service value.
2.The total economic values of conserving Mount Ba-Xian forest with different discounting rates under sustainable conservation scheme are then calculated. The total present value of conserving forest is from NTD 2,152 to 23,916 billion, or 692 to 7,694 million per hectare, with 1% to 5.60% discounting rates.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/27391
Appears in Collections:應用經濟學系

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