Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/27398
標題: 市場集中度、廣告密集度與廠商利潤率關聯之研究─以台灣地區食品及飲料製造業為例
Concentration , Advertising and Profitability of Food and Beverage Manufacturing Industries in Taiwan
作者: 周智強
Chou, Chih-Chiang
關鍵字: food and beverage manufacturing industries;食品及飲料製造業;concentration;advertising;profitability;產業集中度;廣告密集度;廠商利潤率
出版社: 應用經濟學系所
引用: 一、中文部份 [1] 行政院主計處 (2003),「九十年工商及服務業普查報告(第三卷:製造業)」,行政院主計處。 [2] 行政院主計處 (2003),「九十年工商及服務業抽樣調查報告電子資料」,行政院主計處。 [3] 行政院主計處 (1998),「八十五年工商及服務業抽樣調查報告電子資料」,行政院主計處。 [4] 行政院主計處 (1993),「八十年工商及服務業抽樣調查報告電子資料」,行政院主計處。 [5] 林靜儀 (2004),「台灣地區製造業市場集中度、廣告密集度與利潤率關係之探討」,台灣管理學刊,第4卷第2期,頁203-224。 [6] 林水波 (2004),「由通路變革論食品業未來發展策略--以某公司為例」,元智大學會計學系碩士論文。 [7] 陳麗婷、陳玉玲 (2005),「2005年台灣食品產業回顧與展望」,食品工業發展研究所。 [8] 張正宜 (2003),「我國食品製造業資訊資源中心發展模式之研究」,中國文化大學資訊管理研究所碩士論文。 [9] 張淑貞 (2004),「台灣食品業對大陸投資與貿易間交互關係之研究」,農業經濟半年刊,第七十六期,頁19-49。 [10] 黃秋香 (2006),「以創新角度看食品產業變化」,食品工業發展研究所 [11] 楊景如 (2001),「台灣地區食品工業生產力之比較」,國立台灣大學農業經濟學系碩士論文。 二、英文部分 [1] Bain, J. S. (1951), “Relation of Profit Rate to Industry Concentration: American Manufacturing, 1936-1940,” Quarterly Journal of Economics,65(3), 293-324. [2] Bresnahan, T. (1989), “Empirical studies of industries with market power. In: Schmallensee, R., Willig, R. (Eds.),” Handbook of Industrial Organization. Elsevier, The Netherlands. [3] Buxton, A.J., Davies, S.W., Lyons, B.R. (1984), “Concentration and advertising in consumer and producer markets,” The Journal of Industrial Economics, 32(4), 45l-464. [4] Chou, T.C. (1986), “Concentration, Profitability And Trade in a Simultaneous Equation Analysis: The Case of Taiwan,” The Journal of Industrial Economics, 34(4), 429-443. [5] Delorme, C.D., Kamerschen, D.R., Klein, P.G., Voeks, L.F. (2002), “Structure, Conduct and Performance: a Simultaneous Equations Approach,” Applied Economics, 34, 2135-2141. [6] Feeny, S., Rogers, M. (1999), “Market Share, Concentration and Diversification in Firm Profitability,” Melbourne Institute Working Paper, 20. [7] Friedland, T.S. (1977), “Advertising and Market Concentration,” Journal of Industrial Economics, 26(2), 151-160. [8] Gisser, M. (1991), “Advertising, concentration and profitability in manufacturing,” Economic Inquiry, 29, 148-165. [9] Hart, P.E., Morgan, E. (1977), “Market Structure and Economic Performance in the United Kingdom,” Journal of Industrial Economics, 25(3), 177-193. [10] Maddala, G.S. (2001), Introduction to Economitrics, Third Edition, Wiley. [11] Mann, H.M., Henning, J.A., Meehan, J.W. (1973), “Advertising and Market Concentration: Comments,” Southern Economic Journal, 39, 448-453. [12] Marcus, M. (1969), “Advertising and Changes In Concentration,” Southern Economic Journal, 36, 117-121. [13] Pagoulatos, E., Sorensen, R. (1981), “A simultaneous equation analysis of advertising, concentration and profitability,” Southern Economics Journal, 47(3), 728-741. [14] Rosenbaum, D.I. (1993), “Profit, Entry and Changes in Concentration,” International Journal of Industrial Organization, 11(2), 185-203. [15] Scherer, F.M., Ross, D. (1990), “Industrial Market Structure and Economic Performance,” Houghton Mifflin, Boston. [17] Scholtens, B., (2000), “Competition, Growth and Performance in the Banking Industry,” The World Band Working Paper. [18] Strickland, A., Weiss, L. (1976), “Advertising, concentration. and price-cost margins,” Journal of Political Economics, 84(5), 1109-1121. [19] Sutton, C.J. (1974), “Advertising, Concentration and Competition,” Economic Journal, 84, 56-69. [20] Telser, L.G. (1964), “Advertising and Competition,” The Journal of Political Economics, 72, 537-562. [21] Telser, L.G. (1969), “Another Look at Advertising and Concentration,” Journal of Industrial Economics, 18, 85-94. [22] Vlachvei, A., Oustapassidis, K. (1998), “Advertising, Concentration and Profitability in Greek food Manufacturing industries” Agricultural Economics, 18, 191-198.
摘要: 
食品及飲料製造業部門不僅在台灣製造業的產出、成長和獲利方面之貢獻占一重要位置,更影響民間廣大的勞動就業,而其龐大的廣告費用支出,亦突顯產業的獨特性。本文旨在探討台灣地區食品及飲料製造業之產業集中度、廣告密集度與廠商利潤率三者的關聯,除了尋找影響三者之因素外,亦探討研發對三者之影響效果。運用結構-行為-績效架構研究民國九十年及八十五年底臺灣地區食品及飲料製造業,共28個4碼細類產業碼資料,分別計有583家及638家樣本廠商。根據產業組織文獻選用三條包含市場集中度、廣告密集度和廠商利潤率之聯立方程式模型。相關的計量檢定指出本文實證模型適用三階段最小平方法來估計。
研究結果發現:廣告密集度與廠商利潤率及市場集中度與廠商利潤率之間具有反饋效果。市場集中度、廣告密集度、資本密集度與產業銷售成長率對廠商利潤率有顯著的影響效果;而市場集中度由落遲的利潤率、規模經濟及落遲研發比率所決定;廣告密集度則受產業銷售成長率與落遲研發比率所影響。
綜合以上,提出以下政策推薦:
一、廠商方面:
廠商應增加研發支出,提高市場集中度,並利用廣告和持續的產品差異化策略來提高獲利能力。因此,將目標放在提高獲利能力的食品及飲料製造業廠商應該密集的運用廣告和產品差異化等行銷策略並且增加研發支出以創新生產。對於將目標放在提高市占率的廠商而言,必須設法達到反映產業最小效率規模之技術需求且加強研發支出,繼而創新生產。
二、政府方面:
應依單一食品及飲料製造業產業特性擬定相關輔助政策,鼓勵廠商創新研發生產。如此一來,不僅能夠提升廠商專業度及產品獨特性,並可帶動其他相關產業投入創新活動之中,繼而擴大市場規模。此外,由於近年來部分食品產業之價值移轉至更能滿足消費者需求的新興產業,政府應鼓勵產業異業結盟,結合不同領域技術,突破現有技術層次,創造新的機會。

Food and beverage sector is an important manufacturing sector in terms of contribution to manufacturing output, growth and profitability in Taiwan. The objective of this study is to estimate the relationships among concentration, advertising and profitability for a sample of 583 and 638 Taiwan food industries firms in 2001 and 1985, respectively. Besides searching the factors affecting the three endogenous variables, this study discusses the effect of R&D on them. Based on the industrial organization literatures, a three-equation model consisting of concentration, advertising and profitability is specified. Through the tests of econometric, 3SLS method would be applied in the estimation.
The main results show that the existence of feedback effects between advertising & profitability and concentration & profitability. Concentration, advertising intensity, capital intensity and growth rate have significant effects on profitability. Concentration is affected by lagged profitability, economies of scale and lagged R&D ratio. Advertising intensity is affected by growth rate and lagged R&D ratio.
A number of recommendations based on the obtained results can be made: 1.For Taiwan food and beverage manufacturing industries firms:
Firms should increase their R&D expenses to raise concentration, and by advertising and consequently product differentiation strategies increase the profitability. Therefore, food manufacturing firms aiming to increase their profitability should apply intensively advertising and product differentiation strategies and increase R&D expenses to innovate productively. For firms aiming to have large market share, it is necessary to meet technological requirements corresponding to MES of the industry where it operates and increase R&D expenses to innovate productively..
2.For government:
The government should legislate relevant auxiliary policies to encourage firms to innovate, research and develop productively. By this way, it not only raise firms' specialties and uniqueness of products, but also promote other relevant industries to join innovation activities, and then expand the market size. Besides, since part value of food industries shifts to new and developing industries what customers are more satisfied with in recent years, government should encourage different industries to form an alliance, which combine with technologies from different fields and surmount technology levels nowadays, to create new opportunities.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/27398
其他識別: U0005-0908200616041800
Appears in Collections:應用經濟學系

Show full item record
 

Google ScholarTM

Check


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.