Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/27458
標題: 小白菜有機栽培用有機肥料調製研究
A study on organic fertilizer making for organic forming Pak-choi cultivation.
作者: 黃舜德
Huang, Shun-Te
關鍵字: 小白菜;Brassica campestris L. Chinensis Group;有機肥料;碳氮比;堆肥化;organic fertilizer;C/N ratio;composting
出版社: 土壤環境科學系
摘要: 
Convential agriculture practices depends heavily on chemical fertilizers and pesticides to increase crop yields. However, that destroy the environment and some soil properties. Using organic waste can improve soil physico-chemical and biological properties and decrease the pollution on environments. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the fertilizer formula and amount applied for Pak-choi organic cultivation, including organic waste compositing and a pot experiment. Materials used for the compost included mushroom waste and rice hull as carbon sources, and soybean dregs as nitrogen source. The N:P:K ratio before composing was 60:4.3:1 ( OF1 ), 90:4.3:1, and 120:4.3:1, respectively. After composting, the products were applied in the cultivation of Pak-choi to investigate the effects of different C/N ratios, different amounts of compost and successive culture on the plant growth and soil properties.
Results show that the loss of nitrogen, overaged 55 % ,is higher than the loss of carbon, 34 ﹪,during composting. The productivity of Pak-choi using organic fertilizers is higher than using chemical fertilizer , implies that the use of organic fertilizer in strong acid soil could certainly improve the plant productivity. The test of OF 1 in nitrogen efficiency is better than OF 2 and OF 3. This suggestes that a lower C/N organic fertilizer on higher rate of organic fertilizers used to increase up Pak-choi production.. After the successive culture using compost as fertilizer increases soil P, K, and Mg contents and EC value, and thus increase the uptake of P, K and, Mg in plants. If the amount of compost is higher, the accumulations increase too, which will cause soil malnutrition after long terms of apply. According result, it is of great significance to adjustment the nutrient ratio in the organic fertilizer in order to meet the need of plant growth.

現代化的農業依賴高投入的化學肥料及合成農藥等化學資材來增加生產,然而由於不當之使用,造成土壤肥力及其理化性質日趨劣化,對地球環境造成負面影響。另則近來國人生活品質提升,環保意識抬頭,因此利用台灣每年所產生的大量有機廢棄物來發展有機農業實為必要。
本論文包括有機肥料小規模調製研究及小白菜盆栽驗證二部分,以研究有機栽培用小白菜有機肥料養分調配及施用量推算法。有機肥料調製研究部份,試驗材料以金針菇太空包及稻殼為主要碳源以大豆粕為主要氮源,堆肥化前材料中碳:氮:磷比例為60:4.3:1(OF1);為90:4.3:1 (OF2);為120:4.3:1(OF3)三種不同比例,進行堆肥化作用。盆栽驗證部份則以堆肥化後之三種有機肥料栽種小白菜,以探討不同碳氮比及相同堆肥不同施用量及連續種植對小白菜生長及土壤性質之影響。
有機肥料調製試驗結果發現以豆粕為氮源之堆肥,其氮量損失率偏高,而碳損失率偏低。氮成分總量損失率平均約為55.0﹪,碳成分總量損失率約為34.5﹪。可作為日後以此類氮源利用之參考。在盆栽試驗方面,在產量上有機肥料處理高於化學肥料,顯示在強酸性土壤有機肥料施用有增進小白菜生產之功效。在植體氮含量與吸收量來看,OF1在氮肥的效率上有佳於OF2及OF3的情況。高施用量處理(H)無論在植體氮含量或植體氮吸收量方面都有高於低施用量(L)之處理組,顯示調製高氮含量或調製低碳氮比之堆肥,能更有效提供小白菜生長所需。
有機肥料處理具有改善土壤酸性,增加土壤有機質含量之功效,但有機肥料連用後造成土壤中磷、鉀、及鎂的累積,造成EC的逐次上升,此外磷、鉀、鎂的累積,亦造成植體中磷、鉀、鎂含量的提升。且有隨施用量之增加而增加,在鉀鎂比、鈣鎂比、及鉀鈣比方面,土壤與植體中之比例呈一線性相關,達極顯著,長期施用後將造成土壤養分的失調,進而影響作物生長,因此調整有機肥料中之養分比例,使其養分的釋放能配合小白菜的生長,確有其必要性。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/27458
Appears in Collections:土壤環境科學系

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