Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/27548
標題: 不同施肥處理對土壤微生物多樣性之探討
Effect of fertilization on soil microbial diversity
作者: 廖彩汝
關鍵字: 堆肥;土壤微生物;生物多樣性
出版社: 土壤環境科學系
摘要: 
摘 要
土壤生物多樣性與土壤永續利用有極密切之關係。生物多樣性包含以下互有交集的生物多樣性-分類(taxonomic)多樣性、功能(functional)多樣性及基因(genetic)多樣性。本研究從功能性這方面來探討土壤微生物之多樣性。功能多樣性方面之一是從微生物對碳源代謝的角度,以 Biolog microplates 測試土壤微生物對於不同碳源利用的程度差異,獲得不同的土壤微生物群社對不同碳源代謝的情形。
本研究試驗地為農業委員會農業試驗所試驗所試驗田,屬砂頁岩非石灰性新沖積土,七塊厝系(TCt),自1995年秋做玉米起至2001年春做水稻,已執行了六年的水旱田輪作,設七處理,分別施用豆科綠肥(田菁、埃及三葉草)、廢棄物堆肥(豬糞堆肥)、不易分解之有機質(泥炭)及傳統化肥等。本研究藉由Biolog microplates之方法探討有機肥料與化學肥料的施用對土壤微生物多樣性的影響。
土壤微生物群落在水旱田四個試區中七個不同的處理下的代謝潛能中看出玉米田對碳源的代謝潛能高於水稻田,因旱田在好氣的情況下對碳源的代謝也較為的快且多;而玉米田的土壤微生物群落對碳源利用的數目多且變異小。在相對相似度方面玉米田在四個試區中七個不同的處理下,以堆肥、堆肥配合1/3化學氮肥區、堆肥配合2/3化學氮肥區、綠肥配合1/3化學氮肥區及泥炭配合1/3化學氮肥區這五個處理下的微生物族群的相似度較為相似,且之間的相似度均高達0.9左右;而水稻田以堆肥、堆肥配合1/3化學氮肥區、堆肥配合2/3化學氮肥區及綠肥配合1/3化學氮肥區這四個處理下的微生物族群的相似度較為相似,但水稻田之間的相對相似度值就沒有玉米田的高,且四個試區間的差異頗大。試驗田經由主成分分析後得知土壤微生物群落之間的變異以作物的種類為主要影響因子,次之為水分管理,但分別對水稻田及玉米田而言,施肥處理則為影響之間變異的主要因子。

Effect of Fertilization on Soil Microbial Diversity
Abstract
Soil biodiversity is important to the sustainable utilization of soils. The total biodiversity of an ecosystem includes taxonomic, functional and genetic biodiversities. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the effect of organic and chemical fertilization on the soil microbial diversity by using Biolg microplate method.
The experimental site was located at Agricultural Research Institute of Council of Agriculture, Taiwan. The test area is a non-calcareous alluvial soil formed from a sandstone and shale. The crop system has being continuously rotated with corn and rice for six years. The treatments included legume green manure, pig waste compost, peat and chemical fertilizer.
The results obtained shows that the metabolic potential on various carbon sources of the microbial community in corn soils was higher than that in paddy rice soils because the aerobic condition in corn soils favored the microorganisms to utilize the carbon sources in Biolog microplate. The number of carbon sources that could be utilized was higher in corn soils than in rice soils. The microbial community in compost, compost + 1/3 (or 2/3) urea (for corn) or ammonium sulfate (for rice), peat or green manure treated soils were relatively similar. The similarity among those were higher than 0.9. However the microbial community in rice soils were less similar than that in corn soils. The statistic analysis shows that the principal components affecting the soil microbial community were crop species and water management. For corn and rice respectively, organic fertilizer was the major factor affecting the structure of soil microbial community.
Key words: Soil, Microbial diversity, Organic fertilizer, Biodiversity.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/27548
Appears in Collections:土壤環境科學系

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