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Toxicity for earthworms and change of biomass influenced by zinc and cadmium contaiminated in soil
Huang, Chun Jen
Earthworm is the large-sized invertebrate in soils. It could be used as the biological indicator of soil quality, however the contamination of heavy metals has been suggested to be one of the possible factors for the reduction of earthworm population in soils. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the poison effect, earthworms by the concentration of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in soils, and to investigate the population of earthworm as affected by liming on the contaminated soil with Cd.
Different amounts of zinc and cadmium (0, 1, 10, 100, 1000 mg kg-1) were mixed with artificial soil separately, then earthworms (Pheretima asiatica) were added into each treatment. After 56 days, the survival of earthworms and the accumulated concentration of zinc and cadmium, and the effects on the fertility of artificial soil by earthworm addition were studied. Another experiment was conducted that different concentrations (0, 100, 400, 1000 mg kg-1) of cadmium combined with lime (0 and 12 g kg-1) were mixed in artificial soils, then earthworms were added into each treatment and raised for 28 days. The survival of earthworms and the accumulated concentration of cadmium, and the effects on the fertility of artificial soil by the addition of earthworms or lime.
The results showed that the effect of zinc and cadmium on the survival percentage of earthworms varied with the concentration of addition and the incubation time. All earthworms died in the treatments of 1000 mg kg-1 addition of Zn or Cd. There was no significant effect for earthworm growth when Zn or Cd was added below 10 mg kg-1 concentration. The survival percentages of earthworm in the treatment of 100 mg kg-1 of the zinc and cadmium addition 98 % and 76 %, respectively. Results also showed that the accumulated concentration of Zn in earthworm body increased with the increasing concentration of zinc added, but the accumulation effect was not significant. The accumulated concentration of cadmium in earthworm body also increased with the increasing concentration of cadmium added. The accumulation in earthworm body and the poison effect were greater in the treatments of Cd addition than those of Zn addition. In addition, the addition of earthworms was found to increase the EC value significantly, and slightly increased the contents of total nitrogen and Bray-1 P. However, there was no significantly effect or the contents of organic matter and 0.1N HCl extractable zinc and cadmium. The addition of lime decreased the content of 0.1N HCl extractable cadmium in the artificial soil significantly, therefore, reduced the amount of cadmium accumulated in earthworm body. It indicated that in reducing the Cd availability in Cd contaminated soils.
將不同濃度（0、1、10、100、1000 mg kg-1）的鋅及鎘分別混入人造土壤中，再將紅蚯蚓（Pheretima asiatica）放入飼養56天，觀察蚯蚓存活及體內鋅、鎘累積狀況，以及蚯蚓的培育對人造土壤中部分性質的影響。另於人造土壤中採混入不同濃度（0、100、400、1000 mg kg-1）的鎘及石灰（0及12 g kg-1）的配對處理，再將紅蚯蚓放入飼養28天，觀察蚯蚓存活和鎘累積狀況，以及石灰或蚯蚓的添加對人造土壤中部分性質的影響。
結果顯示，鋅和鎘對蚯蚓存活的影響，端視添加的濃度及培育時間的長短而異。在1000 mg kg-1的添加濃度下蚯蚓全數死亡，添加濃度在10 mg kg-1以下對蚯蚓生長無多大影響，而鋅和鎘添加濃度達100 mg kg-1時分別造成蚯蚓族群約98 %及76 %的存活率。試驗結果亦顯示，蚯蚓體內所累積的鋅量會隨添加鋅濃度的增加而增加，但累積效果並不顯著，而蚯蚓體內所累積的鎘量則會隨著添加鎘濃度的增加而呈對數增加的關係。同時，在添加鋅和鎘相同濃度的處理下，鎘比鋅易於累積於蚯蚓體內，且所造成的毒害效應亦高於鋅者。在添加不同濃度之鋅和鎘處理之人造土壤中，蚯蚓的添加會明顯地提高其EC值，而對全氮含量及Bray-1磷則有稍微增進的效應，但對有機質含量及0.1N鹽酸萃出性鋅和鎘量的增減則無明顯的影響。石灰的添加能明顯地降低人造土壤中的0.1N鹽酸萃出性鎘量，及降低在蚯蚓體內的鎘累積量，顯見添加石灰可有效降低土壤中鎘的有效性。
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