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2.45GHz Surface Acoustic Wave RFID device
|關鍵字:||無線射頻;RFID;RFID;表面聲波標籤;電子束微影;SAWRFID;SAW tag;E-beam lithography||出版社:||機械工程學系所||引用:|| 陳宏宇，RFID系統入門-無線射頻辨識系統。臺北：松崗，2004。  Clinton S. Hartmann and Lewis T. Claiborne, “Fundamental Limitations on Reading Range of Passive IC-Based RFID and SAW-Based RFID,” IEEE International Conference on RFID,pp.41~48, March 26-28, 2007.  Yang Hong, Chi Fat Chan, Jianping Guo, Yuen Sum Ng, Weiwei Shi, Lai Kan Leung, Ka Nang Leung, Chiu Sing Choy and Kong Pang Pun, “Design of passive UHF RFID tag in 130nm CMOS technology,” Circuits and Systems, pp.1371~1374, 2008.  Victor P. Plessky, Senior Member, IEEE, and Leonhard M. Reindl, “Review on SAW RFID Tags,” IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, vol. 57, no. 3, March 2010.  White, R.M. and Voltmer, F.W., “Direct Plezoelectric Coupling to Surface Elastic Waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp.314~316, 1965.  Tancrell, R. H. and Holland, M. G., “Acoustic Surface Wave Filters,” Proc. IEEE 59, pp. 393~409, 1971.  Hartmann, C. S., Bell, D. T. and Rosenfeld, R. C., “Impulse Model Design of Acoustic Surface Wave Filters,” IEEE Trans. MTT-21, pp. 162~175, 1973.  Matthews, H., “Surface Wave Filters: Design, Construction, and Use,” New York, Wiley, 1977.  Abbott, B. P., Hartmann, C. S. and Malocha, D. C., “A Coupling-of-Modes Analysis of Chirped Transducers Containing Reflective Electrode Geometries,” Proc. IEEE Ultra. Symposium, pp. 129 ~134,1989.  Cole, P. H. and Vaughan R., “Electrical surveillance system,” United State Patent 3706094, 1972.  White, R. M. and Voltmer, F. W., “Direct Piezoelectric Coupling to Surface Elastic Waves,” Applied Phys. Letter, vol. 7, pp. 314~316, 1965.  Bao, X. Q., Burkhard, W., Varadan, V. V. and Varadan, V. K., “SAW temperature sensor and remote reading system,” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, pp. 583~585, 1987.  Yamanouchi, K., Shimizu, G. and Morishitat, K., “2.5 GHz-range SAW propagation and reflection characteristics and application to passive electronic tag and matched filter”, IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, pp. 1267~1270, 1993.  Reindl, L., Ruile, W., “Programmable reflectors for SAW-ID-Tags,” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, pp. 125~130, 1993.  Reindl, L., Scholl, G., Ostertag, T., Ruppel, C. C. W., Bulst, W. E. and Seifert, F., “SAW devices as wireless passive sensors” Proc. IEEE Ultra. Symposium, pp. 363~367, 1996.  J. H. Collins, H. M. Gerard, T. M. Reeder, and H. J. Shaw, “Unidirectional surface wave transducer”, Proc. IEEE 57, pp. 833~835 , 1969.  K. Yamanouchi, F. M. Nyffeler, and K. Shibayama, “Low insertion loss acoustic surface wave filter using group-type unidirectional interdigital transducer”, in Proc. 1975 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, vol. 1, pp. 317~321, 1975.  F. G. Marshall, E. G. S. Paige, and A. S. Young, “New unidirectional transducer and broadband reflector of acoustic surface waves”, Electron. Lett. 7, pp. 638~640, 1971.  C. S. Hartmann, P. V. Wright, R. J. Kansy, and E. M. Garber, “An analysis of SAW interdigital transducers with internal reflections and the application to the design of single-phase unidirectional transducers,” in Proc. 1982 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, pp. 40~45, 1982.  M. F. Lewis, “Group-type unidirectional SAW devices employing intra-transducer reflector banks,” Electron. Lett. 19, pp. 1085~1087, 1983.  M. Takeuchi and K. Yamanouchi, “Coupled mode analysis of SAW floating electrode type unidirectional transducers”, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 40, pp. 648~658, 1993.  T. Kodama, H. Kawabata, Y. Yasuhara, and H. Sato, “Design of low-loss SAW filters employing distributed acoustic reflection transducers,” in Proc. 1986 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, vol. 1, pp. 59~64, 1986.  C. S. Hartmann and B. P. Abbot, “Overview of design challenges for single phase unidirectional SAW filters,” in Proc. 1989 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, pp. 79~89, 1989.  Sanna Harma Victor P. Plessky, Clinton S. Hartmann, and William Steichen, “Z-Path SAW RFID Tag,” IEEE transactions on ultrasonics, ferroelectrics, and frequency control, vol. 55, no. 1, january 2008.  許哲銘，在UHF頻段之表面聲波式無線射頻識別感測系統，國立台灣大學應用力學研究所碩士論文，2005.  Sanna Harma, “SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVE RFID TAGS: IDEAS, DEVELOPMENTS, AND EXPERIMENTS,” Helsinki University of Technology Faculty of Information and Natural Sciences Department of Applied Physics, Doctoral Dissertation, 2009.||摘要:||
無線射頻辨識（Radio Frequency Identification，簡稱RFID）技術，是一種無線通訊技術，可通過無線電訊號識別特定目標並讀寫相關數據，因非接觸式且不易受干擾等優點，並運用在物流、醫療監控、移動識別、倉管、門禁管理、貨品標籤、與感測器結合之監測等各種識別相關應用。
本論文開發2.45GHz表面聲波式無線射頻標籤，在128°Y-X cut鈮酸鋰壓電基板上，透過電子束微影技術(E-beam lithography)圖案化400奈米寬之指叉電極與反射器。當指叉電極上施加電壓訊號時，壓電基板表面上激發出表面聲波，再由反射器把表面聲波反彈回指叉電極，分析反射訊號的延遲時間與相位來編碼，來開發擁有獨一識別碼之表面聲波無線射頻標籤。以低干擾、耐高溫等優點，可以替代電子式標籤，可增加更多應用範圍。
Currently, surface acoustic radio frequency identification (SAW RFID) tag received increasing attention because of several advantages such as large reliable reading range, low power consumptions, able to operate high temperature range from -40C to 400C and able to be used in harsh environment. One pair of metallic interdigital transducers (IDT) and several reflectors are on the surface of SAW tags. When an electrical signal is applied to IDT, a mechanical acoustic wave will be triggered and transferred to reflector. The time-dependent reflection waves return to IDT, and mechanical waves retransform to AC signals through direct piezoelectric effect. When different patterns of AC signals are measured and recorded, different individual tags will be identified. For SAW RFID tags, the central frequency and number of possible codes are two of most important parameters. In this study, SAW RFID device were operated in high harmonic modes at 2.45GHz. Moreover, encoding scheme was studied to increase the information capacity of SAW tags.
In this thesis, the 2.45GHz center frequency of Surface Acoustic Waves Radio Frequency Identification (SAW RFID) tag was developed. The substrate of SAW RFID was 128�Y-X cut Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3) piezoelectric substrate. The width of the IDT and reflectors were designed as 400nm to achieve center frequency of SAW tag as 2.45 GHz. The time position encoding and phase encoding were used to enhance the information capacity of SAW tags. The IDT and reflectors were deposited on the LiNbO3 piezoelectric substrate successfully by E-beam lithography and lift-off technique.
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