Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/27805
標題: 禽畜糞堆肥在兩種不同性質土壤的最佳管理策略評估
Evaluation of the best management practices of animal dug compost application rate on two soils
作者: 曾證諺
Tzen, Zheng-Yan
關鍵字: strongly acidic soil;強酸性土壤;animal dug compost;best management practice;禽畜糞堆肥;最佳管理策略
出版社: 土壤環境科學系
摘要: 
Abstract
The strategy of animal compost application of strongly acidic soil and slightly soil were different. In general, the application rate of compost mostly based on its nitrogen (N) release rate and the N requirement of crops, but did not considered the amount of phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) provided along with the compost. Therefore, some nutrient accumulation and nutrient imbalance usually decrease the yield and quality of crop. The pot experiments were conducted under three N-based and two P-based compost application rates in Da-Du-San strongly acidic soil to determine the compost effects on cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. cultivar early autumn) growth, nutrient availabilities, and nutrient accumulation in the soil. Nine fertilizer treatments, including control (CK) and chemical fertilizer (CF) (N-P2O5-K2O = 300-80-150 kg/ha) treatments, 30, 45 and 60% N release rates of compost treatments (N1, N2, and N3), 30 and 15% P release rates of compost treatments (P1, P2), and 30 and 15% phosphorus release rate of compost with urea supplement treatments (P1N2, P2N2) were conducted. The results showed that soil pH, soil O.M., and saturated conductivity of N1, N2, and N3 increased with the increase of application rate of compost. After two crops of cabbage, the Bray 1-P concentrations receiving N1, N2, and N3 treatments were increased more than those of original level, while those of P1, P2, P1N2 and P2N2 treatments were increased lower than those of N1, N2, and N3 treatments. The concentrations of soil exchangeable K receiving N1, N2, and N3 treatments were increased higher than original level, while those of P1, P2, P1N2 and P2N2 treatments were increased lower than original level. The concentrations of soil 0.1 N HCl extractable Zn and Cd receiving N1, N2, and N3 treatments were increased higher than original level, and those of P1, P2, P1N2 and P2N2 treatments were increased slightly than original level. .The results showed that the yields of cabbage in N1, N2, N3, P1N2, and P2N2 treatments were higher than that of CF treatment. Based on the evaluation by cabbage growth, soil nutrient availability and the status of nutrient accumulation, the P-based compost application rate with urea supplement (P1N2 and P2N2) are the better management of compost for strongly acidic soil and this will avoid the pollution resulting from nutrient accumulation by compost application.
The field experiments were conducted under three N-based and one P-based compost application rates in Da-Hu slightly acidic soil to determine the compost effects on cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. cultivar early autumn) growth, nutrient availabilities, and nutrient accumulation in the soil. Seven fertilizer treatments, including control (CK) and chemical fertilizer (CF) (N-P2O5-K2O = 300-80-150 kg/ha) treatments, 30, 45 and 60% N release rates of compost treatments (N1, N2, and N3), 30 P release rates of compost treatments (P1), and 30 phosphorus release rate of compost with urea supplement treatments (P1N2) were conducted. The results showed that soil pH, soil O.M., and saturated conductivity of N1, N2, and N3 increased with the increase of application rate of compost, while soil pH and saturated conductivity of P1 also increased, but soil pH and saturated conductivity of P1N2 decreased. After five crops of cabbage, the Bray 1-P concentrations receiving N1, N2, and N3 treatments were increased more than those of original level, while those of P1 and P1N2 treatments were increased lower than those of N1, N2, and N3 treatments. The concentrations of soil exchangeable K receiving N1, N2, and N3 treatments were increased higher than original level, and those of P1 and P1N2 treatments were also increased higher than original level. The concentrations of soil 0.1 N HCl extractable Zn and Cd receiving N1, N2, and N3 treatments were increased higher than original level, and those of P1, P2, P1N2 and P2N2 treatments were increased slightly than original level. The results showed that there were no significant difference in the yields of cabbage between N1, N2, N3, and P1N2 treatments and CF treatment in each crop besides the first crop. Based on the evaluation by cabbage growth, soil nutrient availability and the status of nutrient accumulation, the P-based compost application rate with urea supplement (P1N2) are the better management of compost for slightly acidic soil and this will avoid the pollution resulting from nutrient accumulation by compost application.
Key words: Animal dug compost, cabbage, nutrient accumulation, strongly acidic soil, slightly acidic soil, and heavy metals.

摘 要
禽畜糞堆肥施用在強酸性大肚山土壤和微酸性大湖土壤的策略可能不同。一般堆肥的用量以氮的釋出率來推估,而未考慮磷和鉀隨堆肥之加入量,因而易造成土壤中養分的累積與供需不平衡,進而降低作物生產之質與量。本試驗以強酸性大肚山土壤和微酸性大湖土壤,進行甘藍盆栽和田間試驗,探討在不同氮、磷釋出率及殘效的考量下所估算之禽畜糞堆肥用量,對甘藍產量、土壤養分累積及重金屬含量有效性的影響,以建立此兩類土壤的禽畜糞堆肥肥培管理策略。盆栽試驗共有九種處理,包括對照區(CK)、化肥區(CF),30、45及60%氮釋出率估算的堆肥量處理(N1、N2及N3),30與15%磷釋出率估算堆肥量且不補施氮肥(P1 、P2)與補施氮肥(P1N2 、P2N2),種植甘藍二作並比較施用效果。結果顯示,N1、N2及N3處理的土壤pH、有機質及飽和電導度皆隨堆肥用量增加而提昇。土壤Bray 1-磷,交換性鉀含量,經過兩作甘藍種植後,呈現明顯增加而有累積的情況。土壤0.1 N HCl 萃取的鋅和鎘隨用量增加而增加,N1處理達污染的情況,其餘重金屬含量並無明顯大量增加。P1N2、P2N2、P1及P2處理者,土壤pH隨堆肥用量增加而提昇。有機質及飽和電導度值則改變不多。土壤Bray 1-磷濃度,增加較緩和,交換性鉀則減少。土壤0.1 N HCl 萃取的鋅和鎘隨禽畜糞堆肥用量增加而增加,但較氮需求基準處理者低,其餘重金屬含量無明顯增加。在強酸性土壤N1、N2、N3、P1N2及P2N2處理的甘藍產量,均高於化肥處理。所以就甘藍產量、土壤養分累積及0.1 N HCl 萃取的鋅和鎘含量有效性累積來評估,以磷需求基準估算的堆肥處理用量(P1N2及P2N2)為強酸性土壤較佳施用策略。
田間試驗則有七種處理,包括對照區(CK)、化肥區(CF),30、45及60%氮釋出率估算的堆肥量處理(N1、N2及N3),30磷釋出率估算堆肥量且不補施氮肥(P1)與補施氮肥(P1N2),在田間種植甘藍五作並比較施用效果。結果顯示,N1、N2及N3處理的土壤pH、有機質及飽和電導度皆隨堆肥用量增加而提昇。土壤Bray 1-磷,交換性鉀含量,經過兩作甘藍種植後,呈現明顯增加而有累積的情況。土壤0.1 N HCl 萃取的鋅和鎘隨禽畜糞堆肥用量增加而增加,且N1處理達污染的情況,其餘重金屬含量並無明顯大量增加。P1處理土壤pH亦為提昇。有機質及飽和電導度值則無明顯改變。土壤Bray 1-磷濃度,增加較緩和,交換性鉀濃度亦增加。土壤0.1 N HCl 萃取的鋅和鎘濃度雖有增加,但較氮需求基準處理者低,其餘重金屬含量無明顯增加。P1N2處理土壤pH為降低,有機質及飽和電導度值則無明顯改變。土壤Bray 1-磷濃度,增加較緩和,交換性鉀濃度亦增加。土壤0.1 N HCl 萃取的鋅和鎘濃度雖有增加,但較氮需求基準處理者低,其餘重金屬含量無明顯增加。在大湖土壤五作後,N1、N2、N3和P1N2處理的甘藍產量,除第一作外與化肥處理無顯著差異。所以就甘藍產量、土壤養分累積及0.1 N HCl 萃取的鋅和鎘含量有效性累積來評估,以磷需求基準估算的堆肥處理用量(P1N2)為微酸性大湖土壤較佳施用策略。
綜合作物產量、土壤養分有效性及養分累積程度的評估結果顯示,以磷需求估算的堆肥用量,再補足化學氮肥之作法,為兩類土壤禽畜糞堆肥的最佳肥培管理策略,不僅可達到作物生產之產量,亦可避免土壤中養分累積及環境污染的問題。
關鍵字:禽畜糞堆肥、甘藍、養分累積、強酸性土壤、微酸性土壤、重金屬
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/27805
Appears in Collections:土壤環境科學系

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