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Distribution and application of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms in soils of northern Taiwan
|關鍵字:||溶磷菌;Phosphate-solubilizing microorganism;有機農耕法;慣行農耕法;磷礦石粉;堆肥;小白菜;甘藍;Organic farming;Conventional farming;Rock phosphate;Compost;Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis L. Makino;Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.||出版社:||土壤環境科學系所||摘要:||
Organic farming system has become more popular in Taiwan nowadays. In case that compost can be used in the farm soil, it could not only solve the pollution problem of agricultural wastes but also increase the soil fertility favorable for the crop production as well as for the multiplication of soil microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic and conventional farming on the population dynamics of soil microorganisms and soil fertility. Soil microorganisms with strongest phosphate-solubilizing capacity were isolated and their inoculation methods were also developed in this study. In order to determine the effect of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms on the growth and nutrients uptake of Pai-tsai (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.), the rock phosphate and compost were applied in the field during inoculation of the soil microorganisms.
The result showed the biomass nitrogen and microorganism population in organic farming soil were 2~3 times higher than those in conventional farming soil. However, the biomass nitrogen and microorganism population in vegetable field were 2~5 times higher than those in rice field. The population of microorganisms in rhizosphere soil was 6~20 times higher than those in non-rhizosphere soil. And the population of Ca-PSB, Fe-PSB, Ca-PSF and Fe-PSF microorganisms in organic farming rhizosphere soil was 4, 8, 7, and 10 times, respectively, as compared to those in non-rhizosphere soil. However, the population of Ca-PSB, Fe-PSB, Ca-PSF and Fe-PSF microorganisms in conventional farming rhizosphere soil was 5, 15, 9, and 6 times, respectively, as compared to those in non-rhizosphere soil.
A total of 12 isolates performed strong phosphate-solubilizing capacity, 10 and 2 of them were bacteria and fungi, respectively. Drenching 10 ml plant-1 Pseudomonas spinosa strain TY6 suspension into the root zone of Pai-tsai after transplant, and drenching 10 ml tray-1 Aspergillus sp. SU4 suspension into root of Pai-tsai seeding were suitable inoculation method for the growth and nutrient uptake of Pai-tsai. Experimental results showed that Pai-tsai applying 15 g pot-1 compost and inoculated with 10 ml plant-1 Pseudomonas spinosa strain TY6 suspension increased fresh weights 6 g plant-1, dried weights 0.22 g plant-1, nitrogen uptake 17 mg plant-1 and phosphorous uptake 0.8 mg plant-1, respectively, as compared to non-inoculation treatments. Inoculating with 10 ml plant-1 Aspergillus sp. SU4 suspension could increase fresh weights 1 g plant-1, dried weights 0.02 g plant-1, phosphorous uptake 1.2 mg plant-1, respectively, as compared to non-inoculation treatments.
In the study inoculation of 10 ml plant-1 Pseudomonas spinosa strain TY6 suspension into the root zone with the application of 10 t ha-1 composts for cabbage after transplant one month later. Showed that could give the best treatment, which increased the yield of cabbage 4.8 t ha-1, dry weights 0.43 t ha-1, nitrogen uptake 5 kg ha-1, phosphorus uptake 1.09 kg ha-1 and potassium uptake 13 kg ha-1, respectively, as compared to non-inoculation. And it has 5% significantly different among the treatments.
調查期間由作物根圈土壤中篩選溶磷能力強的菌株共計12株(細菌10株，真菌2株)，其中 Pseudomonas spinosa strain TY6 於小白菜移植後根部灌注菌株原液10 mL及 Aspergillus sp. SU4於穴盤育苗時每穴格介質接種菌株原液10 mL對小白菜生育及養分吸收為最佳。對葉菜類小白菜移植盆栽時，於植株根部接種溶磷細菌Pseudomonas spinosa strain TY6 菌液10 mL，並配合施用堆肥 15 g pot-1，小白菜生育及養分吸收量較不接種者，植株鮮重增加 6 g plant-1，乾重增加 0.22 g plant-1，氮、磷吸收量則分別增加 17 mg plant-1 及 0.8 mg plant-1；而接種溶磷真菌 Aspergillus sp. SU4 菌液10 mL，小白菜生育及養分吸收量較不接種者，植株鮮重增加 1 g plant-1，乾重增加 0.02 g plant-1，磷吸收量則增加 1.2 mg plant-1。
田間試驗種植甘藍於移植田區時植株根部接種 Pseudomonas spinosa strain TY6 菌液10 mL，並配合施用堆肥 10 t ha-1，移植後1個月需進行2次接種 Pseudomonas spinosa strain TY6 菌液10 mL，甘藍生育及養分吸收量較不接種者比較，產量增加 4.8 t ha-1，亁重增加 0.43 t ha-1，氮、磷及鉀吸收量則分別增加 5 kg ha-1、1.09 kg ha-1及 13 kg ha-1，且處理間均達5%顯著差異。
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