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Screening and evaluating the decomposing effect of food waste oil-degrading microorganisms
Processing of food waste produced from family and restaurant is one of mordent primary problems. Recover of food-waste as agricultural resources have been conducted. In Taiwan, because of people's comportment, there is a lot of oil in food waste. Microorganisms difficultly decompose the oil, and it will be a problem when food waste used as organic fertilizer. The objectives of this thesis are to screening oil-decomposing microorganisms, which can decompose oil when other organic matters exist in the environment, and evaluating their efficacy and find the best management in decomposing the oil of food waste. First, food waste oil was added to soil and compost, they incubated for one week to enhance the population of oil-decomposing microorganisms. Then the soil and compost containing oil-decomposing microorganisms were purified by liquid medium consecutively three times. There were 16 microorganisms selected at this stage. Secondly, selected microorganisms and food oil were added into sterilized soil and the evolved CO2 was measured and to evaluate the ability of these microorganisms in decomposing food oil. There were five out of the 16microorganisms (ERS1, ERS5, ERS9, ERs14 and ERS16) found that having significant efficacy in decomposing the added oil. The efficacy of microorganism ERS9 was the highest; the cumulative CO2 yield for seven days was 232.8 mg/bottle. Thirdly, these five microorganisms were added into liquid medium to evaluate the oil-decomposing rate during incubating for 3, 5, and 7 days with food oil. Results showed that the microorganism 9 was the most effective one in decomposing the food oil; the decomposing rates were 21.6 %, 17.1 % and 35.0 % for 3, 5, and 7 days' incubation, respectively. Thus microorganism 9 was used in the following experiments. Fourthly, six nutrient rates (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 times of original formulas) were added into the liquid medium with food oil and the oil decomposing rates were measured after incubating for 3, 5, and 7 days. Results showed that as the nutrient in the medium increased higher than 2 times the decomposing rate reached more than 80 % for 5 day's incubation and reached over 90 % for 7 days. The pH and EC of medium were decreased with the increase of incubation time. Fifthly, different rates of sodium chloride (0, 1000, 3000, and 5000 mg/L of Na) and food oil were added into the medium and incubated for 7 days. Results showed that the increase of the concentration of NaCl decreased the oil decomposing rate. Sixthly, eight treatments with two levels of concentration of nitrogen (1, 3 times), phosphorus (1, 3 times), and sulfur (1, 3 times) were added into the sterilized soil with food oil, and the evolved CO2 was measured to evaluate the effects of nutrients on the ability of microorganism ERS9 in decomposing food oil in soil. Results showed that phosphorous addition significantly promoted oil-decomposing rate of ERS9. Finally, the food waste oil (from the restaurant of Nation Chug Hsing University) was used instead of food oil in liquid medium incubation with ERS9. Results showed that the decomposing rates were 44.7% for 7 days' incubation. The ERS9 decomposed the food waste oil was not as effective as food oil.
家庭與餐飲業每日所產生廚餘的處理，是城市的主要問題之一。國內外相關單位開始研究廚餘資源回收，使其成為農業有機肥料，在台灣，由於國人飲食習慣，廚餘中常含有多量油脂，然而這些油脂為微生物較難利用的物質，因此可能成為廚餘製作有機肥料時的潛在問題。本研究之目的乃欲從環境中篩選廚餘油分解菌，此分解菌即使在環境中含有其他簡單有機物下，也能分解油脂當作營養源；試驗先從土壤及堆肥環境中馴養分離出微生物，以測定每日CO2產量及液體培養測油脂去除率方式進行分解菌的篩選，從中挑選降解率最佳的分解菌種，並進一步試驗瞭解環境因子對分解菌活性的影響，如礦物養分含量和Na+離子濃度對微生物的影響，繼而探討分解菌的除油效益。土壤及堆肥添加廚餘油並馴養一星期，經一系列純化工作後分離出16種菌株，在測定CO2釋放累積產量的方法下，編號ERS1、ERS5、ERS9、ERS14及ERS16的菌株，其CO2產量在添加油與未添加油之間有明顯的差異，其中編號ERS 9的菌株，其CO2累積產量在添加油與未添加油之間的差異最大，其在第7天時累積差異為232.83 mg/bottle。液體培養下在第3、5及7天時食用油的去除率，均以編號ERS 9的菌株為最高，菌ERS 9在這三個天數的食用油去除率分別為21.6%、17.1%及35.0%，因此菌ERS 9為分離的16種菌株中最佳的降解油脂菌株。菌ERS 9相同油量不同礦物養分下，當液體培養基養分濃度大於2倍時，其油脂去除率到第5天時已達到80%以上，至第7天時油脂去除率甚至到達90%以上，且其溶液pH值與EC值也有明顯地下降。不同NaCl含量對油脂的降解影響，結果顯示當添加氯化鈉進入培養基時，第7天時食用油去除率有顯著地下降(P<0.05)，當濃度逐漸增加時，食用油的去除率也將逐漸地降低。而添加額外養分到土壤，結果發現三種變級(N肥、P肥及S肥)中，P肥的添加有助於菌ERS 9對食用油的去除。當菌ERS 9實際應用到廚於油分解時，廚餘油的去除率至第7天時為44.7%，此結果較食用油的去除率為低(93.3%)。
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