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Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the phytophthora blight of sweet pepper
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is one kind of beneficial microbe, that is able symbiosis with most of the plants. It can help plants to absorb nutritions, to increase yield and also to improve the ability of plants to resistance disease and drought. For the recent two decades, some report had been researched the interaction between AMF and the plant pathogeny, the results shown that the infection of AMF can decreasing the percentage of plant fatal rate by soil born disease. The purpose of this study was to increase the suppression of Phytophthora capsici (P.) disease through mycorrhizal formation during seedling. At first, the infection with P. of very low density on sweet pepper during sowing caused over 90% of seedling die. And then, Inoculated with 0.1% P. capsici (P) spore to growth 3 and 4 weeks sweet pepper seedling, there was 50% plant fatal rate observed on 15 to 16 days after transplanted. Inoculated, with G. mossea (GM) and G. clarum (GC) on the seedling of sweet pepper, after three weeks, the root formation mycorrhizal, then transplant mycorrhizal seedling to pot culture, and inoculated with P. capsici . The results shown that the fatal rate of the sweet pepper inoculation with AMF decreased 30~53% compared with control treatment. The plant height and dry weight of seedling inoculation with AMF have no difference compared with control; however, the plant height and fresh weight of seedling dual inoculation with AMF and P are better than that inoculation with P. only, the sweet pepper plant infection P. capsici desease shown less the root activities; and the inoculation with G. mossea plant increase phosphorus concentration in leaves and roots, and decrease the soluble sugar in roots. At the same time, inoculation with P. capsici and G. mossea would decrease the phosphorus concentration, and the density of soluble sugar will be higher than the plant inoculated with VAM only. Inoculation mycorrhizal fungi, change physical status of plant, like the ratio of soluble sugar and starch, root's activities, and absorption of nutrition, those kind of changes also increase the resistance of sweet pepper. The conclusion of this study was that, the infection rate of VAM on sweet pepper was inverse with fatal rate, so that, apply the VAM as biocontrol agent, need to improve the infection rate of VAM on crop roots.
叢枝菌根菌可與大部份植物共生，為有益微生物之一，幫助作物吸收養分，增加產量及增進植物的抗病、抗旱等..的能力。近二十年來，學者相繼探討菌根菌與作物病原間之相互關係，大多顯示作物接種內生菌根菌可減少土傳性病害所造成的損失。本篇研究目的是希望在甜椒育苗階段應用菌根菌接種，育成菌根化幼苗來增強移植後對田間土傳性病害Phytophthora capsici的抵抗力。甜椒種子播種的同時接種疫病原P. capsici，在極低的接種濃度（0.00156﹪）仍造成90﹪以上的幼苗罹病死亡，在育苗三週及四週後移植，當病原接種濃度0.1﹪時其百分之五十的罹病度在移植後15-16天出現。將Glomus mossea和Glomus clarum在甜椒育苗時接種形成菌根苗後，移植至塑膠盆同時接種甜椒疫病P. capsici。結果顯示，在植株罹病死亡方面，接種菌根菌育苗三週後移植處理的甜椒死亡率較對照組減少30-53﹪。在植株生育方面，菌根菌接種處理的株高和乾物重與對照組間並無差異，但在雙重接種菌根菌與甜椒疫病的處理（GC+P；GM+P）部份，其株高與鮮重結果顯著高於單獨接種P. capsici（P）處理。甜椒疫病的接種使根部的活性降低，接種G..mossea使甜椒葉片及根部的磷濃度增加，根部可溶性糖較低；與P. capsici雙重接種時其磷濃度會降低，可溶性糖濃度會較單獨接種菌根菌的濃度高。菌根菌接種時，改變了植株的生理狀態，如可溶性糖與澱粉的比例、根活性、養分吸收，而增加對甜椒疫病的抗性。感染率的高低與罹病死亡程度成反比，因此認為未來應用在生物防治上，如何提高甜椒作物接種菌根菌後的感染率為重要的因素之一。
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