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Soil Microbial Diversity under Organic Farming
|關鍵字:||Soil Microorganisms;土壤微生物;Soil Biodiversity;Organic Farming;Compost;Crop rotation;土壤生物多樣性;輪作;有機栽培;堆肥||出版社:||土壤環境科學系||摘要:||
Soil microbial communities are the most diverse in the earth. However, they are not well known at this moment. They are close related to nutrient cycling, plant growth and the other organisms. Therefore, they are important to soil quality. The sustainability of soils is much dependent on the biodiversity in soils.
The purples of this study were to investigate the effects of different organic fertilizers, application rates, and different rotation systems on soil microbial diversity, tested by Biolog microplates method. The experiment field was located at Hosing ecological farm, Gaoxyong district agricultural experiment station.
The soil microbial communities under chemical fertilization utilized less carbon souses, especially under flooded condition, whatever the rotation was one rice crop or three rice crops in two years. Proper application of organic fertilizer increased the carbon utilization by soil microbial community. However, overdose of organic fertilizer decreased the utilization of carbon sources. A formulated organic fertilizer, named as functional compost, increased the utilization of carbon sources mostly.
The metabolic potentials of soil microbial communities under organic fertilizers were higher than that under chemical fertilizer. Overdose of organic fertilizer (14400 kg ha-1 of soybean refuse compost) decreased the metabolic potentials. The metabolic potential of the soil microbial communities under cow manure compost application was lower than that under the other kind of composts.
The similarity analysis showed that application of 14400 kg ha-1 of soybean refuse compost changed the structures of soil microbial communities dramatically. The principal component analysis showed that the primary factor affecting the soil communities was the application of organic fertilizers, and the second factor was flooding of the soils. The first component in the experiment dealing with the rates of organic fertilizers was the amount of application and the second component was soil moisture. In the experiment dealing with the kinds of organic fertilizers, the soil moisture was the primary factor affecting soil microbial communities.
土壤微生物群落在四個試驗區中碳源的利用情形，在二年一作水稻輪作區及二年三作水稻輪作區，以化肥施用區微生物群落對碳源的利用明顯較低且浸水的情形下比旱作時還低；在堆肥用量的影響，有機肥用量適當將有助於微生物群落對碳源的利用，有機肥施用過量反而明顯的降低微生物群落對碳源的利用；在堆肥種類的影響中，旱作時施用功能性堆肥比施用其他種類堆肥微生物群落對碳源的利用都還要高。在土壤微生物的代謝潛能方面，以肥料種類而論，施用有機肥比施用化肥的代謝潛能都還來的快且多；以堆肥用量而論，有機肥用量適當將有助於微生物群落對碳源的代謝，堆肥施用過量反而明顯的降低微生物群落對碳源的代謝；以堆肥種類而論，以牛糞堆肥處理之微生物代謝潛能最低，功能性堆肥及農場自製堆肥最高。在相對相似度方面，在不同輪作制度之下，各處理間的微生物群落之相對相似度都在 87 % 以上。大量油粕（720 kg ha -1）的施用造成微生物社會結構明顯的改變。輪作區由主成分分析得之土壤微生物群落之間的變異以有機肥的施用為主要影響因子，次之為水分的管理；堆肥用量試驗區由主成分分析得之土壤微生物群落之間的變異以堆肥施用為主要影響因子，次之為耕犁；堆肥用量試驗區由主成分分析得之土壤微生物群落之間的變異以耕犁為主要影響因子。
|Appears in Collections:||土壤環境科學系|
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