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Effect of paddy-upland crop rotations and various fertilizations on soil physical and chemical properties and grouth of crop root
|作者:||許仁鴻||關鍵字:||水旱輪作;paddy-upland crop rotation;不同施肥;物理及化學性質;根;泥炭;豬糞堆肥;綠肥;有機質肥料;various fertilization;physical and chemical properties;root;peat;swine compost;green manure;organic fertilizer||出版社:||土壤環境科學系||摘要:||
Paddy-upland crop rotation is a special cropping system in Taiwan. Because the soil organic matter contents of farmlands are usually low in Taiwan, it is thus very important to apply organic fertilizers to farmlands to improve soil physical, chemical, and biological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of paddy-upland crop rotation and various fertilizations on soil physical and chemical properties and the development of maize root. Up to 2002, the experiment has been conducting for seven years. The site of experimental field is located in Taiwan Agriculture Research Institute and rice and maize are rotated to plant in the field annually. Fertilization of the field includes check, chemical fertilizer, swine compost, green manure, and peat. Organic fertilizers also added the amounts of 1/3 and 2/3 of chemical fertilizer N. Surface soils of the plots were collected and their physical and chemical properties were analyzed after the harvests of crops. In addition, the development and contents of maize roots were observed by using minirhizotron observation system before the harvest of maize in January 2002. The results showed that the applications of swine compost and peat prevent pH values of the plot soils from decrease. Moreover, the applications of organic fertilizers to plot soils increase the amounts of soluble salts, the contents of surface soil organic C with particle-size of < 0.053, 0.053-0.25, 0.25-0.5, 0.5-1, 1-2, 2-6.35, and 6.35-20 mm, and the contents of humic acid. The effect of the treatment was peat > compost > green manure. The content of organic C with particle-size of 0.25-1 mm was the highest and that of particle-size of <0.053 mm was the lowest, and the contents were higher in paddy field than in upland. The applications of organic fertilizers increased the percentages of water-stable aggregate. The effect of the treatment was peat > compost > green manure plots and that was more prominent in paddy field than in upland. The treatments of organic fertilizers decrease bulk density and increase field capacity and pore percentages of paddy and upland field. The development and contents of maize roots in peat and compost+2/3 N plots were higher than other plots and the correlation coefficients of the contents of maize root with bulk density and pore percentages were 0.76 and 0.82, respectively. To sum up, the applications of organic fertilizers and especially peat and swine compost improve soil physical and chemical properties of the plots, and promote the growth of maize roots. Furthermore, the efficiency of treatment was more prominent in paddy field than in upland.
水旱輪作為台灣較特殊之耕作制度，且針對台灣農地土壤有機質含量普遍低落而言，施用有機質肥料以增加土壤有機質來改善土壤物理、化學及生物性質是極為重要的。本研究目的在探討水旱輪作及不同施肥處理對土壤理化性質及玉米根系生長的影響。試驗至2002年為第七年，地點位於台灣省農業試驗所之試驗田，採取水稻和玉米輪作，施肥包括對照、化肥、豬糞堆肥、綠肥和泥炭，有機肥並補充不同的化學氮肥量，其用量為化肥處理氮量的1/3或2/3。作物收穫後採集表土分析其理化性質。並在2002年1月玉米收穫前以根系觀察系統觀察玉米根系的量。結果顯示，施用豬糞堆肥及泥炭能避免土壤pH值下降；施用有機質肥料增加可溶性鹽類含量；增加粒徑<0.053、0.053-0.25、0.25-0.5、0.5-1、1-2、2-6.35、6.35-20 mm團粒其有機碳以及表土腐植酸含量，效果以泥炭>堆肥>綠肥試區，而有機碳含量分布以0.25-1 mm之團粒最高，<0.053 mm之團粒最低，且水田大於旱田；增加上述團粒之穩定度，效果以堆肥>泥炭>綠肥試區，且水田大於旱田；降低水旱田土壤總體密度及增加田間容水量及孔隙率。玉米根系量以泥炭與堆肥+2/3 N試區較高，且表土根系量與總體密度及孔隙率的直線相關係數分別為0.76及0.82。綜合上述，施用有機質肥料可使土壤理化性質變佳，尤其是泥炭與豬糞堆肥，並利於玉米根系生長，而輪作制度中的土壤性質則以水田較旱田為佳。
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