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Toxicity for earthworms and chamge of biomass influenced by insecticides treatment and compost addition.
|關鍵字:||Toxicity Test;毒性試驗;Earthworm-Lumbricidae;Lumbricus spp.;and Megascolecidae;Pheretima spp.;Compost;Chlorpyrifos;Methamidophos;Carbaryl;Carbofuran;Deltimethrin;蚯蚓;正蚓科正蚓屬及鉅蚓科環毛蚓屬;堆肥;陶斯松;達馬松;加保利;加保扶;第滅寧||出版社:||土壤環境科學系||摘要:||
蚯蚓是為土壤生態中最具代表性之土壤動物，亦為評估土壤化學污染的最適當的指標生物之一。本研究採OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development)推薦之濾紙法及人造土壤試驗法作為藥劑對蚯蚓毒性測試之標準方法，進行五種常用藥劑（陶斯松，達馬松，加保力，加保扶，第滅寧）對鉅蚓科(Megascolecidae)環毛蚓屬(Pheretima spp.)，及正蚓科(Lumbricidae; Lumbricus spp.）兩種蚯蚓之急毒性測試，以期了解農藥對台灣蚯蚓之毒害情形，並建立適用之毒性測試方法以作為往後評估之標準依據。此外，並探討銅、鋅含量較高的有機質肥料的施用是否會對蚯蚓造成毒害效應及影響的蚯蚓生長。
Earthworm is the most suitable representative and biological indicator among soil fauna while evaluating soil chemical pollutions. In this study, we adopted contact filter paper test and artificial soil test from OECD guideline No.207 (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) as standard toxicological testing methods. Assessing acute toxicity of five pesticides (chlorpyrifos, methamidophos, carbaryl, carbofuran, and deltamethrin) toward two earthworm species, Megascolecidae, Pheretima spp. and Lumbricidae, Lumbricus spp. respectively. In order to understand toxic risk of earthworms caused by pesticides application in Taiwan and develop an adequate toxicological testing method as a criterion to be followed. In addition, an organic fertilizer was used to investigate whether application of manure with high copper and zinc content will cause toxic effect or growth inhibition for earthworms.
The artificial soil test which measure skin toxicity and stomach toxicity of pesticides towards earthworms, was shown to be a better method in toxicological test than the contact filter paper test which only can determine skin toxicity of pesticides toward earthworms.
The result showed that toxicity of pesticides toward two earthworm species had no consistent relationship in the contact filter paper test; while in the artificial soil test, the sorption of pesticides by soil organic matter resulted in extremely light toxicity of deltamethrin for Lumbricidae and carbaryl for Megascolecidae. Results also showed that earthworm species, pesticides properties, and sorption of pesticides by organic matter in the testing environment were main factors influencing LC50 values of earthworms by two test methods. Toxicity of deltamethrin for Lumbricidae was the lowest, and toxicity of carbofuran for both Lumbricidae and Megascolecidae was the highest among all of the insecticides tested.
The toxicity relationship between the same pesticide toward two earthworm species was not consistent to each other. If the earthworm species was compared with different testing methods, pesticides toxicity toward Lumbricidae showed significant correlation, however, pesticides toxicity towards Megascolecidae showed low correlation. Therefore, the behavior pattern of Lumbricidae was more suitable to be used to toxicity test.
Heavy metals in the manure and chemical effect processed after manure application did not cause lethal effect toward earthworms, but did result in decrement of biomass. Therefore, testing sublethal toxicity caused by heavy metals in long-term experiment was more suitable for evaluating the effect of manure application toward earthworms.
Analysis of soil fertility showed that even earthworms' incubation will slightly changed some soil properties, such as organic carbon and nitrogen content, but the soil fertilities change, such as nitrogen content, EC values, CEC values, exchangeable K, and Bray-1 P were mainly affected . In conclusion, the improvement of soil fertility was greater by compost application than earthworms did.
|Appears in Collections:||土壤環境科學系|
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