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|標題:||Effect of transpiration on Pb uptake by lettuce and on water soluble low molecular weight organic acids in rhizosphere
|關鍵字:||蒸散作用;Transpiration;鉛吸收;低分子量有機酸;根圈;陰離子交換樹脂;萵苣;Pb uptake;Low molecular weight organic acids;Rhizosphere;Anion exchange resin;Leaf lettuce||出版社:||土壤環境科學系所||引用:||Agbenin, J.O., C.A.D. Abreu, and B. van Raij. 1999. Extraction of phytoavailable trace metals from tropical soils by mixed ion exchange resin modified with inorganic and organic ligands. Sci. Total Environ. 227:187-196. Baker, A.J.M. 1981. Accumulators and excluders: strategies in the response of plants to heavy metals. J. Plant Nutr. 3:643-654. Barber, D.A., and J.K. Martin. 1976. The release of organic substances by cereal roots into soil. New Phytol. 76, 69-80. Basu, U., D. Godbold, and G.J. Taylor. 1994. Aluminium resistance in Triticum aestivum associated with enhanced oxidation of malate. J. Plant Physiol. 144, 747-753. Blaylock, M.J., D.E. Salt, S. Dushenkov, O. Zakharova, C. Gussman, Y. Kapulnik, B.D. Ensley, and I. Raskin. 1997. Enhanced accumulation of Pb in Indian mustard by soil-applied chelating agents. Environ. Sci. Technol. 31, 860-865. Brune, A., W. Urbach, and K.J. Dietz. 1994. Compartmentation and transport of zinc in barley primary leaves as basic mechanisms involved in zinc tolerance. Plant Cell Environ. 17:153-162. Chen, Y.X., Q. Lin, Y.M. Luo, Y.F. He, S.J. Zhen, Y.L. Yu, G.M. Tian, and M.H. Wong. 2003. The role of citric acid on the phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. Chemosphere 50, 807-811. Cieśliński, G., K.C.J. van Rees, A.M. Szmigielska, G.S.R. Krishnamurti, and P.M. Huang. 1998. Low-molecular-weight organic acids in rhizosphere soils of durum wheat and their effect on cadmium bioaccumulation. Plant Soil 203, 109-117. Cushman, J.H. 1982. Nutrient transport inside and outside the root rhizosphere: Theory. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 46, 704-709. De Voc, C.H.R., H. Schat, M.A.M. De Waal, R. Voojs, and W.H.O. Ernst. 1991. Increased resistance to cooper-induced damage of root cell plasmalemma in cooper tolerant Silene cucubalus. Physiol. Plantarum. 82:523-528. Grifferty, A., and S. Barrington. 2000. Zinc uptake by young wheat plants under two transpiration regimes. J. Environ. Qual. 29, 443-446. Glover II, L.J., M.J. Eick, and P.V. Brady. 2002. Desorption kinetics of cadmium+2 and lead+2 from goethite: influence of time and organic acids. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 66:797-804. Hammer, D., and C. Keller. 2002. Changes in the rhizosphere of metal-accumulating plants evidenced by chemical extractants. J. Environ. Qual. 31, 1561-1569. Harter, R.D. 1983. Effect of soil pH on adsorption of lead, copper, zinc and nickel. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 47, 47-51. Hopkins, W.G. 1995. Introduction to Plant Physiology. John Wiley & Sons, New York. pp. 81-100. Jones, J.B., and V.W. Case. 1990. Sampleing, handling, and analyzing plant tissue samples. In: Westerman, R.L. (Ed.), Soil Testing and Plant Analysis. 3rd ed., SSSA, Madison, WI, pp. 389-427. Jones, D.L. 1998. Organic acids in the rhizosphere - a critical review. Plant Soil 205, 25-44. Kabata-Pendias, A., and H. Pendia. 2001. Trace elements in plants. In: Kabata-Pendias, A. and Pendia H. (Eds.), Trace Element in Soils and Plants. 3rd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 73-98. Kastori, R., M. Petrovic, and N. Petrovic. 1992. Effect of excess Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn on water relations in sunflower. J. Plant Nutr. 15, 2427-2439. Klassen, S.P., J.E. McLean, P.R. Grossl, and R.C. Sims. 2000. Fate and behavior of lead in soils planted with metal-resistant species (river birch and smallwing sedge). J. Environ. Qual. 29, 1826-1834. Krishnamurti, G.S.R., G. Cieslinski, P.M. Huang, and K.C.J. van Rees. 1997. Kinetics of cadmium release from soils as influenced by organic acids: Implication in cadmium availability. J. Environ. Qual. 26:271-277. Krishnamurti, G.S.R., and R. Naidu. 2002. Solid-solution speciation and phytoavailability of copper and zinc in soils. Environ. Sci. Technol. 36:2645-2651. Lee, J., R.D. Reeves, R.R. Brooks, and T. Jaffr||摘要:||
The effect of transpiration (high and low) on Pb uptake by leaf lettuce and on water soluble low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) in rhizosphere has been studied. After two weeks of growth the plants were cultured in greenhouse for more four weeks and two days. Pb(NO3)2 solutions of different concentrations (100, 200 and 300 mg L-1 of Pb) were then added to the quartz sand pots of different plants and studies were initiated. Blank experiments (without treating the quartz sand pots with Pb(NO3)2 solutions) were also run in parallel. No significant differences in the growth of the plants with the concentrations of added Pb(NO3)2 solutions were observed by both low and high transpirations at the end of the 0, 3rd and 10th days of studies. The total evaporation of the volatiles during ten days did not depend on the concentration of Pb2+ but with high transpiration the rate of evaporation was significantly higher than with low transpiration. Uptake of Pb by shoots and roots of the plants was found to be proportional to the concentration of various Pb(NO3)2 solutions added and more accumulation was observed in roots than in shoots at the end of 3rd and 10th days. High transpiration created more Pb uptake than low transpiration did. One volatile acid, propionic acid and nine non-volatile acids, lactic, glycolic, oxalic, succinic, fumaric, oxalacetic, D-tartaric, trans-aconitic and citric acids in rhizosphere quartz sands were identified and quantified by gas chromatography (GC) analysis. D-tartaric and citric acids were major among the non-volatile acids. The amount of LMWOAs in rhizosphere quartz sands increased with the higher amount of Pb uptake and also with the duration of studies. The total quantities of the LMWOAs in the rhizosphere quartz sands were significantly higher under high transpiration with 300 mg L-1 Pb solution addition at the end of 10th day. The present study shows prominent correlation between transpiration and uptake of heavy metal and interesting correlation between Pb contaminated level and quantity of water soluble LMWOAs in rhizosphere quartz sands. The latter thus deserves of further studies.
Correlation of Pb uptake by leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) with water soluble low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) in rhizosphere as influenced by transpiration (high and low) has been studied. Studies were carried out by culturing plants (two weeks growth) in the pots filled with quartz sand mixed with anion exchange resin for thirty days in greenhouse. Then the potted lettuce plants were subjected to the stress by the addition of Pb(NO3)2 solutions (100, 200 and 300 mg•L-1 of Pb) and that by high and low transpiration treatments for a 10-day period. Blank experiments (without Pb(NO3)2 solutions added to the pots) were also run. There was no significant differences in the growth of the plants with the addition of Pb(NO3)2 solutions by both the transpirations studies. Uptake of Pb by shoots and roots of the plants was found to be proportional to the concentration of Pb solutions added and more accumulation was observed in roots than in shoots at the end of 3rd and 10th days. High transpiration caused more Pb uptake than low transpiration did. One volatile acid, propionic acid and nine non-volatile acids, lactic, glycolic, oxalic, succinic, fumaric, oxalacetic, D-tartaric, trans-aconitic and citric acids in rhizosphere quartz sand or anion exchange resin were identified and quantified by gas chromatography (GC) analysis. The amount of LMWOAs in rhizosphere quartz sand or anion exchange resin increased with the higher amount of Pb in quartz sand solution and also with the duration of studies. The total quantities of the LMWOAs in the rhizosphere quartz sand or anion exchange resin were significantly higher under high and low transpiration with 300 mg•L-1 Pb solution addition at the end of 10th day. Collaborating with our previous related studies (published work), the present study showed that the presence of LMWOAs in rhizosphere has not significantly affected Pb uptake by lettuce plants under high and low transpiration. Physiological mechanism of the roots of lettuce plants in governing the correlation of Pb contaminated level with quantity of water soluble LMWOAs in rhizosphere quartz sand and resin as influenced by transpiration was proposed.
本研究針對蒸散作用對萵苣吸收鉛及根圈水溶性低分子量有機酸之影響與蒸散作用對萵苣吸收鉛及根圈水溶性低分子量有機酸之關係兩部分進行研究。 第一部分是在高低不同蒸散境況下，探討蒸散作用對萵苣吸收鉛與根圈石英砂中水溶性低分子量有機酸（low molecular weight organic acids, LMWOAs）之種類及含量的相互影響。 經過2週的育苗後，將萵苣移植到溫室中繼續種植4週。 4週後將石英砂盆栽萵苣分成兩部分分別移入高低蒸散境況裝置中。 經過2天的平衡後，分別加入不同鉛濃度的Pb(NO3)2污染液（0 mg L-1、100 mg L-1、200 mg L-1、300 mg L-1）。 結果顯示，在兩種不同蒸散境況下，鉛濃度並不會影響萵苣的生育狀況。 高或低蒸散境況之總蒸散量不受添加鉛濃度之影響，但高蒸散境況之蒸散量顯著高於低蒸散境況者。 不同蒸散境況對萵苣植體總吸收鉛量之影響在統計分析上已達顯著之差異；再者，隨著添加鉛濃度的增加，萵苣植體可累積較多的鉛，並且以根部為主要的聚積場所。 在相同的鉛濃度處理下，不同的蒸散境況並不會影響盆栽萵苣根圈石英砂中之水溶性低分子量有機酸之種類，根圈溶液可測得揮發性的丙酸與非揮發性的乳酸、羧基二酸、草酸、琥珀酸、反丁烯二酸、草醋酸、酒石酸、烏頭酸和檸檬酸，其中以丙酸、酒石酸與檸檬酸為最主要酸種。 根圈石英砂中水溶性LMWOAs的產生量與鉛添加量及萵苣之栽種時間成正相關。 添加300 mg L-1的鉛污染液處理10天後，高蒸散境況下根圈石英砂LMWOAs產生量顯著高於低蒸散境況者。 此研究說明了蒸散作用影響鉛被植物根之吸收，以及鉛濃度與根圈石英砂中水溶性LMWOAs之正相關關係；後者之發現值得更進一步探討。
第二部分是在高低不同蒸散境況下，探討萵苣吸收鉛與根圈石英砂中水溶性低分子量有機酸的關係。 經過2週的育苗後，將萵苣移植到溫室盆栽中繼續種植4週，每盆盆栽混合有石英砂及陰離子交換樹脂。 4週後將盆栽萵苣分成兩部分分別移入高低蒸散境況裝置中。 經過2天的平衡後，分別加入不同鉛濃度的Pb(NO3)2污染液（0 mg L-1、100 mg L-1、200 mg L-1、300 mg L-1），並接著種植10天。 在此同時進行一組未添加鉛污染液的空白試驗。 結果顯示，在兩種不同蒸散境況下，鉛的添加濃度並不會影響萵苣的生育狀況。 由第3天與第10天的重金屬分析可看出，隨著添加鉛濃度的增加，萵苣植體的地上部及根部皆可累積較多的鉛，並且以根部為主要的聚積場所。 再者，萵苣在高蒸散境況下顯著的比低蒸散境況吸收累積更多的鉛。 根圈石英砂以及陰離子交換樹脂中可測得揮發性的丙酸與非揮發性的乳酸、羧基二酸、草酸、琥珀酸、反丁烯二酸、草醋酸、酒石酸、烏頭酸和檸檬酸。 根圈石英砂與交換樹脂中水溶性低分子量有機酸的產生量與鉛添加量及萵苣之栽種時間成正相關。 添加300 mg L-1的鉛污染液處理10天後，高蒸散境況下根圈石英砂以及交換樹脂LMWOAs產生量顯著高於低蒸散境況者。 綜合我們之前相關的研究可觀察出，在石英砂的耕作系統中，不論高或低蒸散境況，萵苣根圈環境中的低分子量有機酸並不會影響萵苣對鉛的吸收，由此可以推測在蒸散作用之影響下，鉛濃度和根圈石英砂與陰離子交換樹脂中水溶性低分子量有機酸對萵苣根部吸收鉛的生理機制。
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