Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/2806
標題: 具混合型紋理滑動面之進給系統摩擦特性探討
Investigation on the Friction Characteristics of a Feeding System with Mixed-Texture Sliding Surfaces
作者: 林明賢
Lin, Ming-Shen
關鍵字: 摩擦特性;friction characteristics;表面紋理;摩擦力;進給系統;鏟花;surface texture;friction force;feeding system;scraping
出版社: 機械工程學系所
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摘要: 
滑動機構為機械運動中常見的機構,以一般機械進給系統為例,在重負載條件下大多採用硬軌為主,在接觸面需作精密鏟配以改善滑動時的摩擦特性,因鏟花之品質因人因時而異,無法有效地掌控滑動面之性能,亟需有系統地分析與探討。本研究探討以CNC來加工所設計之滑動面紋理,再透過有系統的前導實驗與實機實驗,探討使用滑動面之進給系統的摩擦特性,並藉由掌握CNC加工之重現性,具體實現滑動面的穩健品質。
本研究首先分析鏟花的幾何參數,選擇PPI(每平方英吋之凸點數)、CPI(每平方英吋之凹點數)及POP(接觸面凸點或凹點所佔面積百分比)為指標,其中POP與PPI結合為溝槽型紋理;POP與CPI結合為油袋型紋理。研究採用不同PPI與CPI搭配不同POP的紋理滑塊進行前導實驗,實驗結果顯示,具油袋之紋理磨潤效果較佳。基於此結果,本研究隨後在油袋型紋理加入聯結油袋之油溝,分別設計田字型、S型、E型、H型以及Z型混合型紋理並加工實驗滑塊,在不同負荷條件下量測實驗滑塊在各種運動速度之摩擦特性。研究更進一步設計製作一可量測滑塊往覆運動摩擦力之進給平台,根據上述滑塊摩擦實驗結果選擇三種較低摩擦之紋理加工滑塊,並將之安裝於所製作之進給平台,以不同滑動速度進行測試,探討表面紋理與滑動速度對於實際機器進給系統之摩擦特性。
綜合上述之研究結果歸納如下:(1) 具相同PPI之溝槽型滑塊顯示POP較小之滑塊摩擦較低;當POP固定時,PPI較大之滑塊摩擦較低;(2) 油袋型滑塊之CPI與POP較小之滑塊摩擦較低;(3) 具圓形油袋之滑塊相較於方形油袋之滑塊能較快速達到穩定的運動摩擦;(4) 比較具溝槽型紋理與具油袋型紋理滑塊之摩擦,顯示油袋型紋理的摩擦特性較佳,推估此乃因溝槽型紋理使潤滑油藉由流道分散至整個接觸面,使得潤滑油流失較快,而封閉式之油袋型紋理能將潤滑油儲存在油袋中,使滑塊與滑軌間保有潤滑油膜;(5) 以POP為30且CPI為9之方形油袋紋理加入油溝後,具S型油溝與E型油溝之滑塊摩擦係數較僅具方形油袋紋理滑塊之摩擦係數為低,顯示此兩種油溝設計能有效引導潤滑油分佈至滑塊接觸面,而具S2型油溝滑塊的摩擦係數較純方形油袋紋理滑塊之摩擦係數平均降低達56%;(6) 將滑塊實際安裝於往覆運動之進給平台進行測試,驗證了使用表面紋理加工之滑塊能有效改善其與滑軌間之摩擦特性。
綜合以上成果,本論文之研究結果證實油袋型紋理加入油溝設計之混合型紋理可有效降低滑塊的運動摩擦,並能與硬軌搭配實際使用於機器之進給系統,而以CNC加工滑塊紋理的方式具高度重現性,可改善機械產業長期無法掌握人工鏟花的情況。

Sliding mechanism is a commonly used mechanism in machine. As an example, the sliding guideway is widely employed in the feeding system of a machine tool to provide accurate motion under heavy loading. Such a sliding guideway requires manual scraping on the contact surfaces to improve the friction characteristics. Because the quality of manual scraping is difficult to control, there is a need to investigate a systematic approach to do scraping on the guideway with high reproducibility and to analyze its friction characteristics. In this study, texture patterns on sliding surfaces are designed and machined using computer numerical control (CNC) machining that provides high reproducibility. Experiments are then designed to investigate the friction characteristics of the texture patterns to ensure the quality and stability of the textured sliding surface.
The geometric parameters of scraping are first analyzed based on previous studies on surface textures. PPI (point per inch square), CPI (concave per inch square) and POP (percentage of point) are selected as parameters for designing surface texture, where PPI is an index for grooved texture and CPI for dimple texture. A precursor experiment is designed to measure the sliding friction of blocks with CNC–machined surface textures. The results show that dimple texture provides better friction characteristics. Based on the result, mixed texture of dimples connected by grooves are then designed and are machined on sliding blocks to investigate the friction characteristics under different loadings and sliding velocities. Five mixed textures investigated in the research include cross, S, E, H, and Z shaped connecting grooves. A testing machine that mimics the feeding system of a machine tool is also designed to measure the friction force of sliding blocks. Three different blocks with texture pattern, tested with less friction from the above experiments, are then installed on the testing machine to measure the friction force.
The results of this research are summarized as follows: (1) For grooved texture, blocks with small POP, if PPI is fixed, provide less friction. Under the same POP, blocks with large PPI showed less friction. (2) For dimpled texture, blocks with small POP and CPI provide less friction. (3) Dynamic friction of sliding block with round dimples reaches steady state faster than that with square dimples. (4) Blocks with dimpled texture give less friction than that with grooved texture. This is because that lubricant leaks faster in the grooves than that in the unconnected dimples. (5) Friction coefficient of blocks with S and E shaped connecting grooves on square dimpled texture with POP 30 and CPI 9 decreases as lubricant can be distributed through these connecting grooves. The friction coefficient of blocks with S2 connecting groove decreases 56% in average compared with that of blocks without connecting grooves. (6) Measured data shows that the friction characteristics are improved for the feeding system with these textured blocks installed.
Based on above results, this study verifies that mixed texture can effectively improve the friction characteristics of sliding blocks. It is further testified on a real feeding platform. As the texture is machined by CNC machining, this approach provide high reproducibility that much improved the manual scraping in machine tool industry.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/2806
其他識別: U0005-1108201314022300
Appears in Collections:機械工程學系所

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