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標題: 配水管壁生物膜生成之模式研究
Modeling of Biofilm in the Water Distribution System
作者: 陳薇羽
Chen, Wei-Yu
關鍵字: attaching;吸附;deattaching;biofilm;脫附;生物膜
出版社: 土壤環境科學系所
引用: 台灣自來水公司,2007: 林則昌、葉宣顯,2004,澎湖烏崁海淡廠出水最佳經濟防蝕方式暨符合第三階段飲用水水質標準之研究,財團法人中興工程顧問社,台灣,台北。 柯君微,2005,以分子生物技術分析模擬配水系統生物膜菌群之組成,逢甲大學環境工程與科學研究所碩士論文。 柯賢文,2003,腐蝕及其防治,全華出版,台灣,台北。 孫文益,2005,台北自來水事業處陽明轄區自來水管腐蝕形態分析,中原大學機械工程學系碩士論文。 康世芳、黃文鑑、王根樹,2003,自來水管線腐蝕之檢討與防蝕策略。中華民國自來水協會。 張銘仁,2003,重金屬對生物膜成長影響之研究,國立雲林科技大學環境與安全技術研究所碩士論文。 陳英琮,2006,光動力作用抑制白色念珠菌懸浮細胞與生物膜,國立台灣大學微生物與生化學系碩士論文。 陳雍熙,2002,殺菌劑混合物用於造紙濕端之藥效研究,朝陽科技大學應用化學系碩士論文。 曾國輝,1997,大學生物化學,藝軒圖書出版社,台灣,台北。 樓基中、林永璋,2003,自來水配水系統水質診斷技術,自來水會刊Vol.24,pp. 10–22。 Antoniou K. and J.F. Frank. 2005. Removal of Pseudomonas putida biofilm and associated extracellular polymeric substances from stainless steel by alkali cleaning. J. Food Prot. 68: 277–281. Bakke R., M.G. Trulear, J.A. Robinsion, and W.G. Characklis. 1984. Activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in biofilms: Steady state. Biotech. Bioeng. 26: 1418–1424. Beech I.B. 2004. Sulfate-reducing bacteria in biofilms on metallic materials and corrosion. Micribiol. Today. 30: 115–117. Beech I.W., and J. Sunner. 2004. 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After the sterilization procedure in the water treatment plant, the running water is delivered to users by pipelines. As the increase of time and length of the water distribution, chlorine in the water reduces gradually and there is possibility of producing bacteria. At present, the running water company clears up the water distribution main pipe wall regularly for about twice a year, but still the water distribution main lines in many areas are corrupted because of bacteria propagation. Moreover, according to documents, about 95% of bacteria that are produced in the pipeline would adhere to the pipe wall, the remaining 5% of bacteria would be floating in the water. The bacteria that are adhered to the pipe wall would accumulate and become biofilm, which not only destroys the structure of the pipeline, but also leads to the increase of the risk of residential sickness.
In order to understand the growing of biofilm and to serve as the basis of clearing up the water distribution main line, this study used multi-attachment dynamic model to simulate the growing state of microorganisms attach to the pipe wall. In the dynamic model, three main factors are considered, which are attaching, detaching, and propagating. The attaching and detaching factors are divided into “bacterium and bacterium” and “bacterium and solid surface” for consideration. Propagating factor is divided into two possibilities for analysis, which are “crosswise-parallel propagating” and “vertical-upward propagating”. The overall bacteria quantity and bacteria quantity of pure culture, which are accumulated in the actual water distribution main line system, are selected and adopted. The observed data and the model simulation are compared from one another so as to justify the performance of the model.
The result shows that different parameters can reach relatively significant results. For the part of overall bacteria quantity in the pipeline, its growing trend in different months was significantly simulated. Due to oxygen and nutrients being restricted, the bacteria quantity in the system did not continue to grow and reached a constant at about Day 40. With regard to the simulation part of different pure culture dynamics, every pure culture produced competitiveness inside the water distribution main line, so the growing trends were totally different. The growing quantity of bacteria β-Proteobacteria would be directly proportional to time, while that of bacteria Acidovorax sp. would be inversely proportional to time. From the growing situation of the overall bacteria quantity, this study suggests the time of clearing up the water distribution main line be shortened to one or two months. The polluted running water from different areas in Kaohsiung is collected and simulated. Their overall bacteria quantity is up to 160, 240, 340, 600, and 800 CFU/ml. From the simulated results one can find that there is a directly proportional relationship between the pollution order of severity and the growing rate of bacteria. For the water purifying system that families are commonly installed, its tolerance bacteria quantity is 1 and 0.01 CFU/ml. After 30-40 days of simulation, the growing quantity of bacteria is still not significant. This result may help Kaohsiung residents to be confident with the quality of their drinking water.

自來水於淨水廠經由消毒程序後,利用配水管線運送至用戶。隨著時間和配水管線的增長,水體中的氯氣也逐漸減少,此時就有產生細菌之可能性。目前,自來水公司雖有實施定期清理配水管壁,但仍舊在多處地區可發現配水管線因菌體孳生而被腐蝕,且根據過去研究文獻指出於管線中產生的細菌大約95 %會附著在管壁上,其餘5 %的細菌懸浮於液相中。而附著於管壁之細菌會聚積成生物膜 (biofilm) 的形態,其不僅破壞管線之結構甚至導致居民身體不適之風險相對提高。
研究結果顯示,依照菌數生長量變更模式中不同參數可達到相關性顯著結果,在管線中總菌量模擬部份,於不同月份其生長趨勢皆為一致,且礙於氧氣和養分最終會受到限制之影響,大約於四十天左右,系統中菌量不再持續生長達到一穩定值。對於不同純菌動態模擬部分,因各純菌於配水管線中產生競爭性,故生長趨勢幾乎完全不同,β-Proteobacteria等菌種其生長量會隨時間成正比,而Acidovorax sp.等菌種則會與時間呈反比關係。由觀察系統總菌量之生長情況可建議主管機關清理配水管線時間可縮短為一至兩個月較為適當。另外,擷取高雄不同地區受污染自來水帶入此模式進行模擬,其總菌量分別高達160、240、340、600及800 CFU/ml,從模擬結果發現污染嚴重程度與菌量生成速率成正比關係。平常一般家庭所設置純水系統其容許菌量為1、0.01 CFU/ml兩類型,經動態模擬後發現經過數十天後,菌體生成量依然不多,此結果亦可讓高雄居民對於自來水之飲用不再產生恐懼感。
其他識別: U0005-1308200709320800
Appears in Collections:土壤環境科學系

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