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Sensitivity enhancement of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis using silver nanoparticles and a micro vibration stage
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Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis can detect an analyte with a higher sensitivity in a shorter time. The self-assembled monolayer (SAM) technique is the usually employed approach to attach analytes to the transducer. In general, the relative time-consuming sample preparation time and the non-uniform immobilization of analyte on the sensing electrode are the commonly encountered problems of the SAM method. In this study, two methods are proposed to enhance the analysis efficiency of the EIS analysis. A nanostructured biosensor with uniformly deposited gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as the sensing electrode was implemented for the EIS analysis.
To enhance the charge transfer efficiency of the biosensor, silver nanoparticles (SNPs) were deposited on the GNP layer. Several voltages were applied during the electrophoretic deposition of the SNPs to obtain an optimal deposition voltage. EIS analyses for the onductance comparisons between the SNP deposited electrodes and the GNP only electrodes with the Der p2 immobilized were carried out. The results indicate that the SNP deposited electrodes have better charge transferring characteristic than the GNP only electrodes.
For the reducing of the sample preparation time and the enhancement of the adhesion and adhesive uniformity of the analyte, this study proposes a simple micro vibration approach based on the Bernoulli’s theory. The detections of the group 2 allergen Der p2 demonstrate that a suitable applied frequency under fixed amplitude can considerably reduce the sample preparation time and improve the adhesion and adhesive uniformity of the analyte. It was also found that the micro vibration approach can give a relatively larger detection range, provide a better detection linearity, result in a standard detection curve with a larger slop so that the sensitivity of the sensor can be increased, and decrease the detection error due to the measurement error. The proposed scheme can be further applied to any detection method that uses SAM method for analyte immobilization.
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