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|標題:||Evaluation of the Disposal Model of Food Waste Composting and Its Maturity Indexes
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Food waste compost maturity is an important index for measurement of compost quality and for assessment of safety of land use because immature compost is detrimental to plant growth and the soil environmental. Current approaches assessing composts maturity are still not well documented. Hence, the main goals of this study are: 1. to conduct a survey on the characteristics of biodegradable food waste compost manufactured from three different disposal system, thus to identify their characteristics and to evaluate the safety and feasibility of using them as compost for crop production; 2. to evaluate the composting process of three disposal model of food waste compost and their characteristics; 3. to assess the adaptability of maturity indexes of food waste compost by chemical analysis; and 4. to study short-term effects on soil properties and nutrient uptake of Chinese cabbage (Pai-Choi) applying with a matured food waste compost.
A comparison is made among three categories of food waste composts manufactured from anaerobic barrel system (7 samples), rapid-disposal machine system (28 samples), and conventional aerated piled system (40 samples). The results indicate the composts of anaerobic barrel system are observed with the highest moisture content (H2O), organic matter (OM), and crude lipid (CL), but the lowest pH and seed germination (SG) among all categories of food waste composts. While, the composts of rapid-disposal machine system show the highest EC, SG, content of Na, N, P, and Ca, but the lowest H2O. As to the composts of conventional aerated piled system, the highest pH, content of Mg and K, but the lowest EC and CL are presented. As with higher percentage of SG, consumers are prone to be misled to consider the rapid-disposal machine system as with best quality. It is need to notice that soil quality may be degraded further when applying composts of both systems of rapid-disposal machine and anaerobic barrel with very high content of CL and relatively low pH. However, the composts of conventional aerated piled system provide better balanced three major nutrients (N, P and K) benefiting the cultivation of vegetables and fruits. But, the other two systems may cause insufficient potassium supply when applying to vegetable fields and orchards. Therefore, conventional aerated piled food waste composts are very appropriate for recycling use as fertilizers incorporated back into fields. Food waste composts of rapid-disposal machine system and anaerobic barrel system can only serve as row materials for second composting, and should not directly broadcast to field lands.
Food waste composted for 40-50 days by conventional aerated piled system conformed to the required regulation of SG. Seed germination (SG) and pH increase with composting time when aerated piled, while organic matter (OM), C/N ratio and CL decline with composting time. EC showed a trend of initial decrease followed by gradual increase during composting process. Crude lipid (CL) and pH presented a trend of gradual increase during composting with rapid-disposal machine system. As to OM, C/N ratio and EC, there was little change when composting with rapid-disposal machine system. The pH of leaching water from anaerobic barrel system lifted in the second week and slightly dropped in the third week. EC value increased with time of anaerobic barrel composting. Experiment of second aerobic composting of rapid-disposal system indicated adding 5% rice bran to composts had little influence on result or process of composting, while blending with 50% rice hull significantly raised the temperature and speeded earlier the purpose of raising the percentage of SG.
A comparative study of chemical properties of 40 aerated piled composts of food waste sourced from communities, or commercial composting plants. The results showed CL, water soluble carbon (WSC), and WSC/total organic carbon (TOC) may be considered as the most adaptable parameters for assessing maturity of food waste compost. The absorption peak of UV-Vis spectra (190-280 nm) may be served as reference indexes of maturity, while pH, EC, OM, total nitrogen (TN), carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N), cation exchange capacity (CEC), nutrients and contaminants may be considered solely as compost quality parameter, but not maturity indexes.
The pot experiments of Chinese cabbage were conducted adding with a matured and aerated piled compost at 19.8, 27.8, 46.2 and 92.5 Mg/ha, respectively. The results indicated that food waste compost had short-term effects on soil with an increased EC, OM, available P, exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, Na, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), sodium exchange percentage (ESP), and potassium exchange percentage (PEP). The degree of increase was significantly proportional to the amount of compost used. The 0.1 N HCl extractable Zn contents are significantly and proportionally increased with the amount of compost used. Whereas other heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni) contents in soil didn't increase. And copper content is decreased, in particular with the highest dose used. Plant analysis of Chinese cabbage (Pai-Choi) showed the increased uptake of sodium and nitrogen content were most significant, phosphorus also significant but that of magnesium were not significant. Plant calcium content was observed obviously reduced. Sodium content in both plant and soil were all increased with the amount of food waste composts but plant potassium was not increase with composts added.
腐熟廚餘堆肥施用使土壤電導度值、有機質、有效磷、交換性鉀、鈣、鎂、鈉、鈉吸附比、交換性鈉百分比提高，尤其在最高用量(92.5公噸/公頃)時急遽增加；土壤0.1 N HCl抽出鋅，隨施用量增加而增加的趨勢，銅則降低，鉻、鎘、鉛和鎳含量不受影響或影響不大。隨著廚餘堆肥施用量的增加，小白菜植體中鈉和氮增加為極明顯，磷增加明顯，鎂影響不顯著，鈣顯著減少。小白菜植體鈉含量與土壤鈉含量隨廚餘堆肥施用量增加而顯著增加，植體鉀含量則否。
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