Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28234
標題: 台灣垃圾焚化處理之區域合作策略研究-以大台北地區為例
Strategies of Regional Cooperation on Municipal Solid Waste Management in Taiwan - A Case Study in Taipei Metropolitan Area
作者: 王仲卿
Wang, Chungching
關鍵字: Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Management;垃圾處理;Regionalization;Incineration Plant,;Linear Programming;Model;Sensitivity Analysis;區域合作;管理策略;垃圾焚化廠;線性規劃;模式建立;參數敏感度分析
出版社: 土壤環境科學系所
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Chang, N.B.; Wang, S.F. A Fuzzy Goal Programming Approach for the Optimal Planning of Metropolitan Solid Waste Management Systems; Eur. J. Op. Res. 1997, 99, 303-321. Chang, N.B.; Wang, S.F. Solid Waste Management System Analysis by Multiobjective Mixed Integer Programming Model; J. Environ. Manage. 1996, 48, 17-43. Daskalopoulos, E.; Badr, O.; Probert, S.D. An Integrated Approach to Municipal Solid Waste Management Resources; Conserv. Recyc. 1998, 24, 33-50. Environment in the EU at the Turn of the Century; Chapter 3.7; European Environment Agency: Copenhagen, Denmark, 1999. Everett, J.W.; Modak, A.R. Optimal Regional Scheduling of Solid Waste Systems I: Model Development; J. Environ. Eng. 1996, 122, 785-792. Everett, J.W.; Modak, A.R. Optimal Regional Scheduling of Solid Waste Systems II: Model Solutions; J. Environ. Eng. 1996, 122, 793-798. Fiorucci, P.; Minciardi, R.; Robba, M.; Sacile, R. Solid Waste. Management in Urban Areas Development and Application of a Decision Support System; Resour. Conserv. Recyc. 2003, 37, 301-328. Gaudet, G., Moreaux, M. and Salant, S.W. 2001 "Intertemporal Depletion of Resource Sites by Spatially Distributed Users," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(4), pages 1149-1159, September. Huang, G.H.; Baetz, B.W.; Patry, G.G. Grey Integer Programming: An Application to Solid Waste Management Planning Under Uncertainty; Eur. J. Op. Res. 1995, 83, 594-620. Huang, G.H.; Baetz, B.W.; Patry, G.G.; Terluk, V. Capacity Planning for an Integrated Waste Management System under Uncertainty: a North American Case Study; Waste Manage. Res. 1997, 15, 523-546. Huang, Y.F.; Baetz, B.W.; Huang, G.H.; Liu, L. Violation Analysis for Solid Waste Management Systems: an Interval Fuzzy Programming Approach; J. Environ. Manage. 2002, 65, 431-446. Joining Forces on Solid Waste Management: Regionalization Is Working in Rural and Small Communities; EPA530-K-93-001; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Washington, DC, 1994. Ley, E.; Macauley, M.K.; Salant, S.W. Spatially and Intertemporally Efficient Waste Management: the Costs of Interstate Trade Restrictions; J. Environ. Econ. Manage. 2002, 43, 188-218. Ley, E.; Macauley, M.K.; Salant, S.W. 2000. "Restricting the Trash Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(2), pages 243-246, May. Lin, M.; Wang, C.; Lin, C. Evaluation of Solid Waste Management Strategies in the Taipei Metropolitan Area of Taiwan; J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc. 2006, 56, 650-656. National Environmental Protection Plan; Environmental Protection Administration: Taiwan, Republic of China, 2004. Ossenbruggen, P.J. Fundamental Principles of Systems Analysis and Decision-Making. Wiley: New York, NY, 1994. Tanskanen, J.-H. Strategic Planning of Municipal Solid Waste Management; Resour. Conserv. Recyc. 2000, 30, 111-133. Tanskanen; Juha-Heikki. Strategic Planning of Municipal Solid Waste Management; Resour. Conserv. Recyc. 2000, 30, 111-133. Taha, H. A. Operations Research – An Introduction, 5th edition, Macmillan Publishing Company Vaillancourt, K.; Waaub, J.-P. Environmental Site Evaluation of Waste Management Facilities Embedded into EUGE‘NE Model: a Multicriteria Approach; Eur. J. Op. Res. 2002, 139, 436-448. Year Reports of Operation, Maintenance and Environmental Monitoring of Hsintein Refuse Incineration Plant; Bureau of Environmental Protection, Taipei County Government: Taiwan, Republic of China, 2001. Year Reports of Operation, Maintenance and Environmental Monitoring of Shulin Refuse Incineration Plant; Bureau of Environmental Protection, Taipei County Government: Taiwan, Republic of China, 2001. Year Reports of Operation, Maintenance and Environmental Monitoring of Pali Refuse Incineration Plant; Bureau of Environmental Protection,Taipei County Government: Taiwan, Republic of China, 2001. Yearbook of Environmental Protection Statistics, Republic of China; Environmental Protection Administration, Executive Yuan: Taiwan, Republic of China, 2006; pp 2-78–2-79. Yearbook of Environmental Protection Statistics, Taiwan Area, the Republic of China. R.O.C.; Environmental Protection Administration: Taiwan, Republic of China, 2004. pp 2–76-2–77. Yearbook of Environmental Protection Statistics, Taiwan Area, the Republic of China; Environmental Protection Administration: Taiwan, Republic of China, 2002; pp 2–126-2–127. 環保署垃圾資源回收廠 http://ivy4.epa.gov.tw/swims/ 臺北市政府環境保護局 http://www.epb.taipei.gov.tw/index.aspx 台北市內湖垃圾焚化廠 http://www.nhrip.tcg.gov.tw/ 台北市北投垃圾焚化廠http://www.ptrip.gov.tw/ 台北市木柵垃圾焚化廠 http://www.mcrip.taipei.gov.tw/ 臺北市山豬窟垃圾掩衛生埋場 http://landfill.myweb.hinet.net/ 台北縣政府環境保護局 http://www.epb.tpc.gov.tw/web/Home?command=display&page=flash 台北縣八里垃圾焚化廠 http://202.133.247.47/$sitepreview/plr.tpepb.gov.tw/index.aspx 台北縣樹林垃圾焚化廠 http://61.219.97.124/SLP/6/m6_1.htm 台北縣新店垃圾焚化廠 http://61.219.97.124/HTP/ 台北縣八里衛生掩埋場 http://www.epb.tpc.gov.tw/web/SG?pageID=31494 台北縣樹林灰渣掩埋場 http://www.epb.tpc.gov.tw/web/SG?pageID=31890 基隆市天外天垃圾焚化廠 http://www.glp.sesc.com.tw/ 行政院環境保護署,台灣地區垃圾資源回收(焚化)廠興建工程計畫執行現況(http:// ww2.epa.gov.tw/swims/)
摘要: 
垃圾處理問題是現代化社會普遍面臨的問題,如何有效的管理已成為各國政府施政的重點。台灣依據「焚化為主、掩埋為輔」的垃圾處理策略,經過十多年的積極執行,隨著垃圾焚化廠陸續完工運轉,部分縣市因為近年推動垃圾強制分類及資源回收執行成效良好,使垃圾量大幅減少,導致垃圾焚化廠無法達最有效率的營運;再者,因部分縣市垃圾焚化廠因政策調整而停建,造成該等縣市的垃圾無處處理的困境,但部分其他縣市的垃圾焚化廠卻仍有餘裕量;另因各縣市垃圾焚化廠設置的地點分散於轄區較偏遠、縣市交界附近,引起清運垃圾之運距過長、造成不經濟的情形;因此跨縣市區域合作處理垃圾已成為政府工作重點的主軸。
本研究利用實際的營運資料評估跨區處理垃圾的相關策略,採用線性規劃方法建立成本最小化的模式架構,將垃圾之清運費、焚化或掩埋之處理費、焚化後產生灰渣之清運運費、處理費與各垃圾焚化廠的發電收入等 5 項納入考慮,依據實務經驗擬定各種方案,經過模擬計算結果,進行量化的比較分析。探討的主題包括:區域合作的效益評析、區域內各垃圾處理設施停爐時的影響、垃圾處理設施地理位置之優劣、垃圾焚化廠每焚化每噸垃圾產生電力之轉換因子(WETC)、與垃圾處理單價統一收費由 1600 元/噸升高至 8000 元/噸,評估對系統的影響範圍及程度,並對各項影響因子進行敏感度分析;此外,也提供各項處理經費的回歸分析數學式、釐定各垃圾處理設施的最佳服務範圍、並對國內營運中的垃圾焚化廠之各項營運參數進行探討。
研究結果顯示,區域合作處理垃圾是更經濟的作法,與縣市各自處理方案比較,節省經費 315,322 元/日,相當於每年節省 94,596,600 元,此外,可相對提高處理設施之使用率,產生兩倍的加成效果;垃圾及灰渣處理費用合計約佔 96%,因此,處理單價的訂定具有決定性的影響。部分行政分區對特定的垃圾處理設施傾向於將垃圾運送至特定的垃圾處理設施處理,部分行政分區對特定的圾處理設施則完全排拒,部分行政分區對於送往處理設施處理的垃圾量相當具有彈性。若以負載率作為評估基準,各垃圾處理設施具有的地理位置由最佳而劣之相對次序已經釐清,可預測當垃圾或灰渣清運費單價升高時,具有地理位置優勢之垃圾處理設施會傾向滿載,而傾向滿載的次序會參照這由最佳而劣的次序;此外,兼具地理位置優勢及發電效益之垃圾處理設施由優劣之相對次序亦已釐清,同理可以預測當售電電價提高時,兼具地理位置優勢及發電效益之垃圾處理設施傾向滿載,傾向滿載趨勢的強度會參照這次序,因此,可將垃圾儘量送至滿載趨勢強的垃圾處理設施處理,儘量使滿載運轉、增長其運轉時間、或縮短期停爐歲修時間等。在依縣市實際收費的條件下,各垃圾處理設施停止運轉/停爐時系統的總經費各不相同,因此應該儘量縮短總經費高的垃圾處理設施停止運轉的時間,以減輕系統的經費的支出;至於停止運轉/停爐時系統總經費最低的垃圾處理設施停止運轉時對系統的衝擊最小,故若考慮選擇退場的垃圾焚化廠時,該設施是優先選擇退場的對象。經由敏感度分析顯示,在本研究的條件下,垃圾焚化廠的負載率下限的設定值及處理費單價在 1920 元/噸至 2720 元/噸之間對系統是是非常敏感的;至於各垃圾處理設施負載情形對垃圾處理單價高低的敏感度分析顯示,部分垃圾處理設施在單價 1920 元/噸至 2720 元/噸之間是非常敏感、且其變化之先後次序及程度各不相同。此外回歸,。這些並提供具有價值的資訊
本研究針對研究的主題完成各種垃圾管理策略的量化分析,但仍有尚待研究開發之處,例如售電電價及運費單價提高對系統的影響程度及敏感度分析、跨區合作的範圍再擴大、建立適合台灣的垃圾管理支援決策系統等;此外,因應台灣高速鐵路加入交通運輸系統後,可研議利用交通部台灣鐵路管理局現有火車運輸系統進行大區域範圍的垃圾量調度規劃。雖然研究結果證實跨區合作處理垃圾使系統的總經費降低,然而若細部探討跨區合作處理時各縣市分擔經費的情形,顯示部分縣市收益增加,部分縣市負擔的經費顯然的增加,因此,為確保跨區處理垃圾策略的成功,必須由相關權責單位,透過協商研並擬出可接受的合作方式,諸如合理的訂定垃圾處理單價、中央政府提供經費補助的誘因、成立立場超然的統一的區域性垃圾處理管理委員會等,惟各種合作方式尚待深入的分析評估。由全國營運中垃圾焚化廠的營運分析顯示,每年的平均停廠日數約為70日,年平均負載率約為 68%,表示平均每日尚可處理 7,426 噸的垃圾,因此,應有系統的進行規劃區域合作處理垃圾之最佳區域及方式,及早因應資源回收後導致進入焚化爐燃燒垃圾的質及量發生的改變。對於部分公有公營的垃圾焚化廠年平均負載率僅 38%,每年的平均停廠日數高達 151 日,應儘快促成區域合作處理垃圾,否則必須採行其他方法因應,以避免設備及人力閒置。

Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is a major concern for highly urbanized societies. Among proposed MSW management systems, regionalization programs generally have received considerable attention. This study analyzes real-world operational data to assess different MSW management policies, especially regionalization strategies, and their impact on MSW management systems in the Taipei metropolitan area. Linear programming is also used to identify the minimum costs sustained by each policy. The linear programming results show that programs are more economical and also improve incinerator operation efficiency. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the minimum treatment requirement of incinerators is a very sensitive influence on the MSW flows distributed through the entire region. The MSW of several “sensitive” administrative districts will be allocated to different treatment facilities according to different management strategies. A list of preferential sequences of MSW treatment and disposal facilities can also be identified by the model presented in this study.
Although regionalization policies have been proven as good strategies for municipal solid waste (MSW) management in previous studies, the optimal allocation of the waste stream is significantly affected by several influential factors, thus further investigation of the impacts of such factors as waste-to electricity transformation coefficient (WETC) of incinerators and the fluctuation of unit tipping fees on the regional MSW flow/allocation of the Taipei metropolitan area from practical and economic perspectives also demonstrated. Analytical results indicated some treatment facilities had geographic superiority and their priorities changed when actual WETCs of incinerators were considered. Treatment facilities located at weighted centers were identified. The allocation of MSW among incinerators and landfills is affected by fluctuation of unit tipping fees within a certain range. Treatment facilities sensitive to the changes in unit tipping fees were identified. Regression equations were also established that can estimate the cost items of MSW management scenarios with different unit tipping fees. The results of this study are very useful for daily basis regulation of MSW administration and may provide a useful tool for aiding decision-making related to real-world MSW management problems.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28234
其他識別: U0005-1002200916313200
Appears in Collections:土壤環境科學系

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