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Effects of Pruning Time and Temperature on Flowering of Sugar Apple(Annona squamosa L.)
為探討不同時期修剪及溫度對番荔枝開花之影響，本研究以6年生軟枝種番荔枝田間植株分別於冬季( 1-3月 )及夏季( 7-10月 )進行不同時期修剪試驗，並以3年生盆栽進行不同溫度處理試驗。
在冬季生長靜止期間( 1月 )及夏季生長期間( 7月 )二個時期，將番荔枝盆栽以20/17℃及28/24℃兩種不同溫度處理，結果發現，以20/17℃處理時萌芽較慢，大多數芽點呈靜止狀態，而以28/24℃處理時，新梢生長快速並可萌出花蕾，顯示番荔枝需適度的高溫才能促使其萌芽開花。冬季盆栽處理前樹體碳水化合物含量比夏季盆栽顯著較高，而修剪後之總開花數亦顯著較多。此結果顯示樹體碳水化合物含量亦可影響番荔枝的開花。
This study was conducted to determine the effects of pruning time and temperature on the flowering of sugar apple (Annona squamosa.L.). Plants were pruned in winter (January-March) and summer (July-October), respectively.
Three days after defoliation and pruning of shoots in August, septal primordia were formed in axillary buds. The petal and stamen initiations started 2 and 5 days later, respectively. Bud sprouting occurred at the 10th days after pruning.
The time from pruning to bud sprout was longer in January pruning treatment, which was 23 days, compared to 18 days in February and 13 days in March. The days from pruning to 1st flower open were 104 for January treatment, 79 for February and 55 for March. The average numbers of flowers per bearing shoot was highest (4.6) for the March treatment, followed by February (2.8) and January (1.5). The buds sprouted faster after pruning in summer (July-August) than in winter. It took only 5 days for July treatment and 6 days for August treatment. The temperature gradually declined after September and October pruning and there were few flower buds formed on the shoots, which shed later.
Potted sugar apple plants were treated with different day/night temperature (20/17℃and 28/24℃) in January and July, respectively. Bud sprouting were delayed and new shoot growth, with no flower buds, were retarded in the low temperature (20/17℃) treated plants. On the contrary, the high temperature (28/24℃) treated plants had higher percentage of bud sprouting and the new shoots, with flower buds, grew fast. The results suggested that temperature is an important factor affecting the bud sprouting and flower development of sugar apple.
The carbohydrate content in the winter potted sugar apple plant body was significantly higher than that in the summer plant body. In addition, the average flower numbers per plant were 10.5 for winter plants and 5.0 for summer plants, which suggested that carbohydrate reserve before pruning could be a significant factor affecting flower sugar apple development.
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