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The evaluation and application of the composted industrial wastes
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Composting industrial wastes with agricultural wastes has a potential to recycle and become organic fertilizers or soil amendment, however, the nature and safety of raw materials will deeply affect the quality of organic fertility and safety of agriculture lands applied with composted industrial wastes. The objectives of this study were to investigate the characteristics and nature of different industrial and agricultural wastes and the qualities of composts produced from 4 composting plants using different kinds and quantities of industrial wastes. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted with different doses of 3 composted industrial wastes and evaluated their nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) released characteristic. Cabbages pot experiment was also conducted with seven treatments, including (1) check (CK): no fertilized added; (2) chemical fertilizers (CF): N P and K fertilizer were added based on the fertilizer recommendation for cabbage suggested by Agricultural Council of ROC. ; (3) composted industrial waste A; (4) composted industrial waste B; (5) composted industrial waste C; (6) composted industrial waste D and (7) composted animal manure. In addition, single, double and four times dose of compost according to the nitrogen (N) requirement of cabbage (N : 0.3 g N kg-1)were established for the 5 compost treatments, respectively. The growth of cabbage and some selected items of soil fertility were determined to evaluate and compare the effects of different treatments. Results showed that the heavy metal content of some raw materials and the compost of A and B composting plants were higher than the regulation limit of heavy metal in compost. However, heavy metal contents of composts were reduced after the ratio of raw materials was adjusted. C compost produced mainly with waste clay and mushroom sawdust waste, its high carbon and nitrogen ratio (35) and low seed germination rate (79%) indicated was not maturity. The results of 81-day incubation showed that the characteristics of N and P released of compost in the soil were determined by the natures of the wastes used in composting. B compost was found to have the highest nitrogen released efficiency (177 mg N released when added 1 g N), followed by compost A (42 mg when added 1 g N), and C compost (19 mg when added 1 g N) was the least. The phosphorus release efficiency was C compost (17 mg P released when added 1 g P2O5) > B compost (11 mg P released when added 1 g P2O5) > A compost (7.1 mg P released when added 1 g P2O5) treatment. The growth of cabbage was seriously inhibited by composted industrial wastes C application due to low nutrient supply and un-maturity of the compost. In general, other composts all would increase cabbage growth compared to that of check treatment, and the growth of cabbage of the treatment with double and four doses of B compost and four doses of D and E compost were closer or higher than that of the treatment with chemical fertilizer, but some of them tended to cause nutrients and salt accumulation. It suggests that proper use of composted industrial waste and proper choice the safe industrial wastes to be composted are very important for waste management.
將事業廢棄物與農業廢棄物製成堆肥具有資源回收再利用的潛力，且可使其變成有機質肥料或土壤改良劑，然而，原料來源的安全性將會深深影響事業廢棄物堆肥之品質與施用後農地之安全性。本研究目的為調查使用不同事業廢棄物種類及數量之四家堆肥場，偵測其原料的成分特性與堆肥的品質。嗣利用不同劑量的三種堆肥成品進行室內培育試驗，以評估不同事業廢棄物製成堆肥的氮與磷養分釋放特性。甘藍盆栽試驗亦被設置，且包括七種處理組：(1)未施肥組(CK)、(2)化學肥料處理組(CF)、(3)事業廢棄物堆肥組A、(4)事業廢棄物堆肥組B、(5)事業廢棄物堆肥組C、(6)事業廢棄物堆肥組D與(7)禽畜糞堆肥組E。此外，五種的堆肥處理均依甘藍氮需求量(N : 0.3 g N kg-1)分別設置一倍、二倍與四倍量處理。測定甘藍生長與部分土壤肥力狀況以評估及比較不同處理間之效應。結果顯示，A與B堆肥場之原料與堆肥成品之重金屬含量均高於堆肥重金屬之管制標準。不過經由原料配比調整後，堆肥之重金屬含量則明顯降低。C堆肥主要由廢白土與菇類培植廢棄包內含物產出，導致其堆肥成品具有過高的碳氮比值(35)與較低的種子發芽率(79 %)，故為未腐熟之堆肥。81天之培育試驗結果顯示，各堆肥氮與磷釋放特性決定於其使用廢棄物之原料。各堆肥處理以B堆肥每添加1 g N kg-1能釋出177 mg kg-1的土壤淨無機態氮含量最高，A堆肥釋出42 mg kg-1次之，C堆肥釋出19 mg kg-1最低，而三種堆肥成品之磷釋放效率，各堆肥每添加1 g P2O5 kg-1之土壤Bray-1磷淨增加量依序為C堆肥(17 mg kg-1)>B堆肥(11 mg kg-1)>A堆肥(7.1 mg kg-1)處理。盆栽試驗結果顯示，C堆肥因養分供應低及未腐熟，在施用後嚴重抑制甘藍之生長。其他堆肥之施用與未施肥組相較下皆能增加甘藍的產量，而B堆肥兩倍與四倍施用量以及D和E堆肥四倍施用量之處理的甘藍乾重約等同或高於化肥處理者，但部分處理有造成養分與鹽類過量累積之趨勢。本實驗結果指出，適當的使用事業廢棄堆肥及適當選擇安全的事業廢棄物原料以製成堆肥為非常重要之廢棄物管理方式。
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