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The effect of soil pH, phosphates, and phosphate solubilizing bacteria on the forms of soil phosphates and growth of maize (Zea mays L.)
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土壤中的磷主要以各種難溶性無機磷型態存在，對植物的有效性低。許多學者利用溶磷菌提高植物對土壤磷的利用，但是成效常不一致。本論文選用湖口、新社、大雅等三種酸性土壤及西螺及溪洲兩種鹼性土壤，經調整土壤pH值及添加磷肥，探討土壤無機磷酸鹽的轉變；另外探討接種溶磷菌 (Rhizobium lusitanum、Burkholderia cepacia)及施用不同磷肥 (Ca3(PO4)2、FePO4、Rock P) 對土壤磷酸鹽的變化及玉米(Zea mays L.)生長的影響。
試驗結果顯示酸性土壤 (湖口、新社及大雅) 的磷型態之量依序為還原劑溶性磷 (CBD-P) 或磷酸鐵 (Fe-P) > 磷酸鋁 (Al-P) > 磷酸鈣(Ca-P) > 可溶性磷 (Soluble-P)；而鹼性土壤 (西螺與溪洲) 磷型態依序為Ca-P > CBD-P或Fe-P > Al-P > Soluble-P。將西螺與溪洲的土壤pH值由7.4分別調整至5.6與5.8，其Soluble-P與Ca-P濃度分別減少48-71 % 與 25-56 %；而Al-P與Fe-P濃度分別增加13-44 % 與 39-276 %。以各土壤磷等溫吸附曲線中平衡溶液為0.2 mg-P L-1所對應的磷吸附量用KH2PO4添加至湖口、新社、西螺及溪洲土壤，經過三週孵育，各土壤中磷的型態分別主要存在Fe-P、Al-P、Ca-P及Ca-P為主，且比原土壤濃度分別增加25 %、276 %、17 %和16 %。盆栽試驗的結果顯示接種溶磷菌對玉米乾重與植體磷含量之效益不顯著。不同磷肥中肥效以施用FePO4最高，且相較於對照處理，玉米的乾重增加26-131 %，植體磷濃度則增加50-622 %。
It has been known that most soil inorganic phosphates are in hard soluble forms and many researches using phosphate solubilizing microorganism to increase their availability to plants, however, their effects are not consistant. In this study, three acid soils (Hukou, Xinshe, and Daya) and two alkaline soils (Xiluo, and Xizhou) were used to investigate the transformation of soil phosphates after the adjust of soil pH and addition of different phospates and the effect of inoculation of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (Rhizobium lusitanum and Burkholderia cepacia) and phosphates (Ca3PO4, FePO4, and Rock P) on the growth of maize (Zea mays L.).
Results showed that the rank order of P fractions was CBD-P or Fe-P > Al-P > Ca-P > Soluble-P in acidic soils (Hukou, Xinshe, and Daya), and Ca-P > CBD-P or Fe-P > Al-P > Soluble-P in alkaline soils (Xiluo and Xizhou). The acidification of Xiluo and Xizhou soils from original pH 7.4 to 5.6 and 5.8, respectively, decreased their Soluble-P and Ca-P concentrations 48-71 % and 25-56 %, meanwhile, increased Al-P and Fe-P concentrations 13-44 % and 39-276 %, respectively. The most part of added KH2PO4 (P3) of Hukou, Xinshe, Xiluo and Xizhou soils, their quantity used for each soil was measured according to their isothermal adsorption equation with equilibrium concentration of solution-P at 0.2 mg-P L-1, was mainly in form of Fe-P, Al-P, Ca-P and Ca-P with increased rate, relative to original concentration, at 25 %, 276 %, 17 % and 16 %, respectively. In pot experiments, the inoculation of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria had no significant effect on the dry weight and phosphorus concentration of maize shoot. The efficiency of FePO4 was highest among phosphorus fertilizers (Ca3PO4, FePO4, and Rock P) used, and the dry weight and P concentration of maize shoot of FePO4 treatment were increased 26-131 % and 50-622 %, respectively, compared to the control.
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